Senin, 08 Februari 2016

ISENG: SEANDAINYA ADA HARI LIBUR TAMBAHAN

Hari ini lagi iseng, tiba-tiba muncul pertanyaan "seandainya ada penambahan hari libur, kira-kira akan jatuh pada tanggal berapa dan memperingati apa?". Kemudian, gue berpikir dan inilah kandidat harinya versi gue :

  1. Tanggal 9 Maret (memperingati hari di mana Belanda menyerah tanpa syarat kepada Jepang, hari berakhirnya penjajahan Jepang di Indonesia, dan dimulainya pendudukan militer Jepang di Indonesia);
  2. Tanggal 21 Mei (memperingati mundurnya Presiden Soeharto dan dilantiknya BJ Habibie sebagai presiden Indonesia, puncak dari perjuangan reformasi);
  3. Tanggal 28 Mei (hari dilantiknya dan dimulainya rapat BPUPKI, sebuah forum resmi untuk mendiskusikan persiapan kemerdekaan Indonesia, baik itu dasar negara, konstitusi, dan juga wilayah Indonesia merdeka. Dibandingkan dengan 1 Juni yang di mana Soekarno membacakan gagasannya tentang dasar negara dan memperkenalkan istilah pancasila, menurut gue tanggal 28 Mei ini lebih penting. Di hari yang lain pada tanggal 29 dan 30 Mei, Soepomo dan Muh.Yamin pun menyampaikan gagasan tentang dasar negara Indonesia. Toh, yang kita kenal sebagai Pancasila ini bukan domain Soekarno seorang diri, walau dialah yang pertama yang memperkenalkan istilah Pancasila).
  4. Tanggal 28 Oktober (memperingati dibacakannya sumpah pemuda yang menyatakan satu nusa, satu bangsa, dan satu bahasa, yakni Indonesia);
  5. Tanggal 10 November (memperingati Pertempuran Surabaya melawan pasukan Inggris, perang besar pertama melawan sekutu di Indonesia);
  6. Tanggal 27 Desember (memperingati pengakuan kedaulatan Indonesia oleh Belanda, berakhirnya revolusi fisik mempertahankan kemerdekaan).
Kalo disuruh milih, gue cenderung memilih  tanggal 21 Mei, 28 Oktober, dan 10 November sebagai kandidat hari libur nasional. 

Sabtu, 23 Januari 2016

Problematika Jodoh




Hari ini ada seorang kawan curhat mengenai masalah jodoh, suatu topik pembicaraan yang sejujurnya ingin gue hindari. Sejujurnya selama ini gue gak pernah pacaran, jadi untuk masalah percintaan gue sendiri merasa sangat amatir. Gak cocok rasanya gue memberi nasihat terkait topik tersebut. Gue belum pacaran, bukan karena gue gk normal! Bukan pula karena gue termasuk kalangan yang memang prinsipnya gak pacaran, tetapi langsung nikah. Gue belum pacaran karena belum nemu urgensinya. Gak muna sih gue, pernah suatu kali ketika SMA kelas 3, gue merasakan ingin sekali pacaran. Wkwkwk. Bahkan, ketika perpisahan sekolah, terbersit di dalam hati untuk nembak “dia” (mungkin sekarang “dia” udah jadi seorang ibu dokter muda yang cantik). Sayangnya, angan-angan gue pupus karena tau dia lagi didekati oleh pria lain. Semenjak saat itu, keinginan untuk pacaran belum muncul kembali, setidaknya sampai hari-hari belakangan ini. Akan tetapi, mendekati umur 24 tahun, urgensi untuk pacaran atau mencari seorang istri kembali muncul. Bahkan, makin hari makin tambah genting tingkat urgensinya! Wkwkwk. Bagaimana gak genting kalo rekan-rekan sekohort sudah mulai menikah, ada yang lagi hamil, ada yang punya anak dua, ada yang udah tunangan? Teman-teman terdekat saat ini pun sedang saingan untuk mencari pacar! Yang tadinya gak mikirin pun, akhirnya jadi kepikiran. Hahahaha.
Jujur gue agak amatir dengan masalah cinta dan wanita. Setidaknya dalam hidup ini gue pernah suka dan sampai saat ini pun tetap suka terhadap dua orang wanita. Wanita yang pertama teman SD dan yang kedua teman SMP-SMA. Kalo dilihat ciri-cirinya, keduanya menggunakan kacamata. Jujur ketika gue suka kepada seorang wanita, hal yang pertama gue lihat bukan rupanya. Akan tetapi, sikap dan pemikirannya. Untuk masalah rupa mah itu urutan ke sekian. Selain menyukai, setidaknya ada satu wanita yang gue tahu` dia menyukai gue. Wkwkwk. Gue tahunya karena dia sendiri yang pernah cerita ke gue. Katanya dulu pas SMP dia pernah suka sama gue (gue sampai tersanjung). Yah tapi sekarang dia udah nikah dan pas SMP sayangnya gue gak menaruh hati kepada dia (dasar gak sensitif!).
Kembali lagi ke masalah urgensi mencari jodoh. Ya, gue akui bahwa saat ini gue mulai insecure karena melihat lingkungan pergaulan gue udah pada mulai cari jodoh. But, gue rasa secepat-cepatnya mungkin gak dalam tahun ini juga. Dengan kondisi sekarang, gue merasa kurang PD untuk mendekati seorang wanita. Masalahnya gue merasa diri gue masih belum dewasa secara pemikiran dan perilaku. Intinya gue saat ini belum bisa mempertanggungjawabkan diri gue sendiri dengan baik di hadapan Tuhan, bagaimana mungkin gue menjadi seorang imam bagi calon istri nanti? Target gue adalah sebelum mulai mencari jodoh, minimal banget hidup gue harus udah mandiri (gue gak jabarin definisi mandiri menurut gue di sini, malu menguraikannya) dan harus bisa bertanggung jawab atas semua tindakan gue. Gue usahakan target itu terselesaikan di tahun 2016 ini, biar tahun udah mulai bisa hunting jodoh. Wkwkwkwk. Jadi kalo ada pertanyaan, Ade kapan punya pacar? Jawabannya adalah belum tahun ini, insyaallah tahun depan! Amin.

Sabtu, 03 Oktober 2015

Konstitusi Negara Khayalan Gue

Ceritanya gue ini punya negara khayalan gitu. Sebenernya udah dari lama gue punya negara khayalan, tapi baru belakangan ini gue berpikir untuk membuat konstitusi buat negara khayalan gue ini. Wkwkwk. Gue mencoba untuk browsing konstitusi negara-negara di dunia ini. Akhirnya, jadilah konstitusi buat negara khayalan gue ini.

Prinsip dari konstitusi negara khayalan gue ini adalah negara khayalan gue ini berbentuk republik, merupakan negara kesatuan, dan semi-presidensial. Dalam konstitusi negara khayalan gue ini, sangat menekankan tentang perlindungan terhadap hak asasi manusia. Jadi untuk topik ini, cukup rinci dijelaskan dalam konstitusi negara khayalan gue ini. Selain itu, dalam negara khayalan gue ini berbentuk semi-presidensial, di mana ada Presiden sebagai kepala negara dan Perdana Menteri sebagai kepala pemerintahan. Presiden di sini bukan hanya sekedar simbol belaka, tetapi memiliki peranan yang cukup besar terutama di dalam bidang  pertahanan dan luar negeri. Sementara itu, sisa kewenangan eksekutif berada di tangan Dewan Menteri yang kepalai oleh Perdana Menteri. Dewan Menteri bertanggung jawab kepada DPR. DPR dapat memberikan mosi tidak percaya terhadap Dewan Menteri, tetapi DPR juga bisa dibubarkan oleh Presiden. Jadi di sini keseimbangan dalam pemerintahan bisa terjaga.

Selain itu, negara khayalan gue ini menganut sistem parlemen bikameral, di mana ada DPR dan Senat. DPR sebagai lower house dan Senat sebagai upper house. Kewenangan DPR berpusat pada pengawasan pemerintahan, semua pembahasan UU harus di mulai dari DPR, dan hanya DPR-lah yang mempunyai wewenang untuk membahas UU terkait pajak, anggaran pendapatan dan belanja, serta pinjaman. Kalo Senat kewenangannya di negara khayalan gue ini terletak pada hampir seluruh posisi penting di negara khayalan gue ini harus mendapat persetujuan Senat. Senat di negara khayalan gue ini juga non-partisan alias independen! Kalo  DPR-nya berasal dari calon Parpol atau juga bisa independen. Oh ya terus negara khayalan gue ini dalam pemilihan DPR-nya juga menganut single member constituency. Jadi diharapkan anggota DPR-nya bisa lebih mengenal rakyat konstituennya. Btw, di negara khayalan gue ini juga menjaga kursi tetap bagi rakyat negara khayalan gue yang berada di luar negeri loh!

Selanjutnya, negara khayalan gue ini adalah negara kesatuan yang menganut sistem desentralsasi asimetris! Jadi setiap wilayahnya punya kewenangan-kewenangan tertentu yang mungkin saja tidak dimiliki oleh wilayah lainnya.

Terus di dalam negara khayalan gue ini juga terdapat komisi-komisi independen yang bertugas untuk memperkuat sistem check and balances!
Oh ya, sistem peradilan di negara khayalan gue ini juga terdiri dari 3 macam pengadilan loh! Ada Court of Justice yang membawahi perkara hukum sipil, pidana, dan dagang. Selain itu, juga ada Court of Administrative yang membawahi perkara hukum administrasi negara. Terakhir, ada Constitutional Court.

Intinya silakan membaca deh konstitusi negara khayalan gue ini. Hahahahaha. Abis capek ngetik kata pengantarnya nih. Oh ya, konstitusi negara khayalan gue ini gue olah dan modifikasi dari konstitusi negara Ceko, Bulgaria, Hungaria, Austria, Rumania, Polandia, Perancis, Spanyol, Portugal, Irlandia, Italia, Jerman, Russia, Finlandia, Jepang, Philippina, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Korea Selatan, Turki, Brazil, Amerika Serikat, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Afrika Selatan, Kenya, Aljazair, seinget gue sih itu. Abisnya kebanyakan baca sih jadi lupa. Wkwkwk.
Selamat membaca!





CONSTITUTION OF REPUBLIC OF GREAT NOVAKIA

CONTENT

 


CHAPTER I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES


Article 1
1.    The name of the State is the Great Novakian Republic.
2.    The Great Novakian Republic is a sovereign, independent, unitary, and democratic state governed by the rule of law, founded on respect for the rights and freedoms of man.
Article 2
1.    The Constitution of the Great Novakian Republic shall have the supreme juridical force, direct application and shall be used on the whole territory of the State.
2.    Laws and other legal acts adopted in the State shall not contradict the Constitution of the Great Novakian Republic.
Article 3
1.    The legal system of the Great Novakian Republic conforms to the generally recognized principles of international law.
2.    The State observes its obligations resulting from international law.
Article 4
1.    All state power, derive, under God, from the people; they exercise this power by means of their legislative, executive, and judicial bodies.
2.    A constitutional law may stipulate the cases when the people exercise state power directly.
Article 5
1.    The Great Novakian territory constitutes a uniform currency, economic, and customs area.
2.    Intermediate customs barriers or other traffic restrictions may not be established within The Great Novakian territory.
Article 6
The basic tasks of the State are:
a)    to safeguard national independence and create the political, economic, social, and cultural conditions conducive to it;
b)    to safeguard fundamental rights and freedoms and respect for the principles of the democratic state based on law;
c)    to defend political democracy, secure and promote the democratic participation of the citizens in solving the national problems;
d)    to promote common welfare, sustainable development, inner cohesion, and cultural diversity of the country;
e)    to ensures the highest possible degree of equal opportunities for all citizens;
f)     strives to safeguard the long-term preservation of natural resources and to promote a just and peaceful international order.
Article 7
·         Novakian is the official language of the State without prejudice to the rights provided by law for linguistic minorities.
·         Detailed provisions of the flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem of the State are settled by law.

CHAPTER II

CITIZENSHIP


Article 8
The following are Great Novakian citizens:
a)    by birth:
                              i.        those born in the Great Novakian Republic, even if of foreign parents, provided that they are not in the service of their country;
                             ii.        those born abroad, of a Great Novakian father or a Great Novakian mother, provided that either of them is serving the Great Novakian Republic;
                            iii.        those born abroad, of a Great Novakian father or a Great Novakian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Great Novakian Republic and opt for the Great Novakian citizen at any time;
b)    naturalized:
                              i.        those who, as set forth by law, acquire Great Novakian citizen;
                             ii.        foreigners of any citizen, resident in the Great Novakian Republic for over 15 uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Great Novakian citizen.
Article 9
1.    The law may not establish any distinction between born and naturalized Great Novakian citizens, except in the events set forth in this Constitution.
2.    Only born Great Novakian citizens may hold the office of the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Speaker of the Senate, the Prime Minister, the diplomats, judges, and officers of the Armed Forces.
Article 10
1.    A Great Novakian citizen may hold dual citizenship from a foreign state according to law.
2.    The possession of foreign citizenship by a Great Novakian citizen shall not derogate his rights and freedoms and shall not free him from the obligations.
3.    Great Novakian citizenship may not be taken away. The loss of citizenship may only be imposed pursuant to a law and against the will of the person affected only where such person does not become stateless as a result thereof.
Article 11
A Great Novakian citizen shall, during a stay abroad, have the right to protection by the Great Novakian Republic.
Article 12
Great Novakians become adults at 18 years of age.
Article 13
Legal regulation of the status of foreigners conforms to international rules and treaties.

CHAPTER III

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, FREEDOMS, AND DUTIES

 

Section 1 General Provisions

Article14
All human beings are born free, equal in dignity and rights, and have the right to pursue happiness. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 15
1.    The State recognizes and guarantees the inviolable human rights, be it as an individual or in social groups expressing their personality, and it ensures the performance of the unalterable duty to political, economic, and social solidarity.
2.    Everyone have equal social status and equal before the law, without regard to their sex, race, language, religion, political opinions, and personal or social conditions.

 

Section 2 Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

Article 16
  1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
2.    The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right.
3.    The death penalty may be imposed only for murder committed in aggravating circumstances and serious acts of violence resulting in death, and :
a)    the law must permit the court a discretion whether or not to impose the penalty;
b)    the penalty may be carried out only in accordance with a final judgment of a competent court;
c)    the penalty must not be imposed on a person who was less than twenty-one years old when the offence was committed; or who is more than seventy years old;
d)    the person sentenced must have a right to seek pardon of the penalty from the President of the Republic.
Article 17
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 18
1.    No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The application of corporal punishment shall be prohibited.
2.    No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation, without his or her voluntary consent.
Article 19
1.    Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone.
2.    No one may be deprived of his or her freedom, except as a result of a court judgment convicting him or her to a prison sentence on account of an offense punishable by law.
3.    Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation.
4.    Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.
Article 20
1.    No person may be subjected to arbitrary arrest, and no person may be detained without a charge or conviction against him.
2.    Warrants issued by a judge through due procedures upon the request of a prosecutor have to be presented in case of arrest, detention, seizure, or search. Provided, that in a case where a criminal suspect is a apprehended in flagrante delicto, or where there is danger that a person suspected of committing a crime punishable by imprisonment of three years or more may escape or destroy evidence, investigative authorities may request an ex post facto warrant.
3.    Anyone who is arrested or detained has the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, of the reasons for their arrest and of any charge against them. The family and other related persons, as designated by law, of a person arrested or detained shall be notified without delay of the reason for and the time and place of the arrest or detention.
4.    Anyone who is arrested has the right to remain silent.
5.    Anyone who is arrested or detained has the right to prompt assistance of counsel.  When a criminal defendant is unable to secure counsel by his own efforts, the State assigns counsel for the defendant as prescribed by law.
6.    Detention may not last more than the time strictly necessary for the investigations which tend to clarify events, and in every case, within a maximum period of 48 hours the person detained must be freed or placed at the disposal of the judicial authority.
7.    Anyone who is arrested or detained has the right to request the court to review the legality of the arrest or detention. Where the interest of justice requires, the court may order the arrested person to remain in custody or, when requested remand him for a time strictly required to carry out the necessary investigation. In determining the additional time necessary for investigation, the court shall ensure that the responsible law enforcement authorities carry out the investigation respecting the arrested person's right to a speedy trial.
8.    Anyone who is arrested or detained has the right to be released on bail. In exceptional circumstances prescribed by law, the court may deny bail or demand adequate guarantees for the conditional release of the arrested person.
Article 21
1.    Everyone have the right to be tried in conformity with the law by judges qualified under the Constitution and the law. Everyone have the right to a speedy trial.  The accused have the right to a public trial without delay in the absence of justifiable reasons to the contrary.
2.    The accused has the right to be informed with sufficient particulars of the charge brought against them and to be given the charge in writing.
3.    The accused shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court.
4.    The accused has the right to full access to any evidence presented against them, to examine witnesses testifying against them, to adduce or to have evidence produced in their own defense, and to obtain the attendance of and examination of witnesses on their behalf before the court at State expense.
5.    The accused has the right to choose and to be assisted by counsel at all stages of the proceedings.  The cases and stages in which this is compulsory are specified by law.
6.    The accused has the right to request for the assistance of an interpreter at State expense where the court proceedings are conducted in a language they do not understand.
7.    All persons have the right of appeal to the competent court against an order or a judgment of the court which first heard the case.
8.    Any evidence obtained by torture, force, violation of the physical or moral integrity of the individual is of no effect.
Article 22
1.    No one may be prosecuted for an act which does not constitute a crime under the law in force at the time it was committed, nor may he be placed in double jeopardy. No one may be subjected to a sentence or security measure that is more severe than those provided for at the time the act was committed or the plans therefor were laid. 
2.    No restrictions may be imposed upon the political rights of any citizen, nor may any person be deprived of property rights by means of retroactive law.
3.    No one shall suffer unfavorable treatment on account of an act not of his own doing but committed by a relative.
Article 23
1.    Everyone held in custody and persons imprisoned upon conviction and sentencing have the right to treatments respecting their human dignity.
2.    Everyone shall have the opportunity to communicate with, and to be visited by, their spouses or partners, close relatives, friends, religious councilors, medical doctors and their legal counsel.
3.    Prison sentences and security measures shall be oriented towards reeducation and social rehabilitation and may not consist of forced labor.  The person sentenced to prison shall enjoy, during his imprisonment, the fundamental rights contained in this chapter, with the exception of those which are expressly restricted by the content of the prison sentence, the purpose of the sentence, and the penitentiary law.  In any case, he shall have the right to remunerated work and the pertinent benefits of social security, as well as access to culture and the integral development of his personality.
Article 24
1.    The State shall be held liable for any damages caused by unlawful acts or actions on the part of its agencies and officials.
2.    In case a person has sustained damages by an unlawful act committed by a public official in the course of official duties or has been placed under detention is not indicted as provided by law or is acquitted by a court, he may claim just compensation from the State under the conditions as prescribed by law.  In this case, the public official concerned is not immune from liabilities.
Article 25
Citizens who were impaired in their physical, psychological or sexual integrity due to criminal acts of others may receive assistance and appropriate compensation from the State under the conditions as prescribed by law.
Article 26
1.    If a perpetrator of sexual or other violent crimes is qualified by expert testimony necessary for sentencing as extremely dangerous without chance of therapy, he may be in jailed for life due to the high risk of repeat offences.  Early release or temporary leave are barred.
2.    New expert testimony is only admissible if new scientific facts establish that the criminal can successfully receive therapy and does no longer present a danger to the public.  In case of release due to such new testimony, the administrative agency responsible for the release is liable for any repeat offences.
3.    All expert testimony regarding perpetrators of sexual or other violent crimes must be presented by at least two independent and experienced experts on the basis of all relevant facts.
Article 27
1.    Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honor and good reputation and to make decisions about his personal life.
2.    The home is inviolable.  No entry or search may be made without legal authority except with the express consent of the owners or in the case of a flagrante delicto. Verifications and inspections for public health and safety, or for economic and fiscal purposes are defined by law.
3.    Secrecy of communications, particularly regarding postal, telegraphic, and telephone communication, is guaranteed, except for infractions by judicial order.
4.    The law shall limit the use of information, to guarantee personal and family honor, the privacy of citizens, and the full exercise of their rights.
Article 28
1.    No one may be obliged, except on the basis of law, to disclose information concerning his person.
2.    The State shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
3.    Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning themself. Limitations upon such rights may be established by law.
4.    Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of false or incomplete information, or information acquired by means contrary to law. 
5.    Principles and procedures for collection of and access to information shall be specified by law.
Article 29
1.    Every citizen and foreigners lawfully within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic has the right to reside and travel freely in any part of territory except for limitations provide by general laws protecting health or security.  No restriction may be imposed for political reasons.
2.    Every citizen is free to leave the territory of the State and return to it except for obligations defined by law.
3.    A Great Novakian citizen may not be expelled from the country.
Article 30
1.    The extradition of a Great Novakian citizen shall be prohibited. Extradition of a Great Novakian citizen may be granted upon a request made by a foreign state or an international judicial body if such a possibility stems from an international treaty ratified by the Great Novakian Republic or a law implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organization of which the Great Novakian Republic is a member, provided that the act covered by a request for extradition:
a)    was committed outside the territory of the Great Novakian Republic; and
b)    constituted an offence under the law in force in the Great Novakian Republic or would have constituted an offence under the law in force in the Great Novakian Republic if it had been committed within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic, both at the time of its commitment and at the time of the making of the request.
2.    Compliance with the conditions specified in paragraph 1 subparagraph a and b shall not be required if an extradition request is made by an international judicial body established under an international treaty ratified by the Great Novakian Republic, in connection with a crime of genocide, crime against humanity, war crime or a crime of aggression, covered by the jurisdiction of that body.
3.    The extradition of a person suspected of the commission of a crime for political reasons but without the use of force shall be forbidden, so as an extradition which would violate rights and freedoms of persons and citizens.
4.    The courts shall adjudicate on the admissibility of extradition. 
Article 31
1.    The right of asylum is secured to foreigners and stateless persons who are persecuted or seriously threatened of persecution as a result of their activities on behalf of democracy, social and national liberation, peace among the peoples, or individual freedom and human rights.
2.    Foreigners may not be extradited for political offences.
3.    Foreigners whose, in the Great Novakian Republic, seek protection from persecution, may be granted the status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Great Novakian Republic is a party.
Article 32
1.    Everyone enjoy the freedom of thought and conscience.
2.    No one shall be persecuted or restricted in his rights because of his views, nor shall be obligated or forced to provide information about his own or another person's views.
3.    No one may be compelled against his conscience to render war service involving the use of arms. Details are regulated by a law.
Article 33
1.    The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God.
2.    Everyone is entitled to freely profess religious beliefs in any form, individually or with others, to promote them, and to celebrate rites in public or in private, or to profess no religion at all, provided they are not offensive to public order and morality. Freedom of religion shall also include possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for the satisfaction of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, wherever they may be, to benefit from religious services.
3.    The freedom to publicly express religion may be limited only by means of law and only where this is necessary for public order, health, morals or the freedoms and rights of others.
4.    Every religious denomination shall have the right to manage its own affairs; own, acquire and administer property, movable and immovable; and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes. Their relationship with the State is regulated by law, based on agreements with their representatives.
5.    Every religious denomination has the right to establish and maintain institutions for the education of children and provide therein instruction in its own religion.
6.    The religion legally recognized religious organization may be taught in public schools, but other peoples' freedom of religion and conscience shall not be infringed thereby.
7.    Parents shall have the right to ensure their children a moral and religious upbringing and teaching in accordance with their convictions. 
8.    No one shall be compelled to participate or not participate in religious practices.
9.    No one may be questioned by any authority about his or her convictions or religious practices, except for gathering of statistical data that cannot be identified individually, nor shall anyone be prejudiced by his or her refusal to reply.
Article 34
1.    Everyone has the right to freely express and disseminate his opinion in speech, writing, and pictures and to freely inform himself from generally accessible sources.
2.    Neither speech nor the press may violate the honor or rights of other persons. Should speech or the press violate the honor or rights of other persons, claims may be made for the damage resulting therefrom.
3.    Publications, performances, and other exhibits offensive to public morality are prohibited.  Measures of prevention and repression against violations are provided by law.
4.    Propaganda or agitation instigating social, racial, national or religious hatred and strife shall not be allowed. The propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall be banned.
Article 35
1.    Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by means of broadcasts and films are guaranteed. There may be no censorship. These rights are subject to limitations in the provisions of laws, in statutory provisions for the protection of the children, and in the right to personal honor.
2.    Freedom of the press includes:
a)    The freedom of expression and creativeness for journalists and literary collaborators as well as a role for the former in giving editorial direction to the concerned mass media, save where the latter belong to the State or have a doctrinal or denominational character;
b)    The journalists' right of access to the sources of information, protection of their professional independence and secrecy, and election of editorial councils, in accordance with the law;
c)    The right to start newspapers and any other publication regardless of any prior administrative authorization, deposit, or qualification.
3.    Radio and television stations may operate only where a license to that effect has been delivered pursuant to a public competition held in accordance with the law.
4.    The law ensures, in a general way, disclosure of the ownership and forms of financing of the mass media.
5.    The State ensures the freedom and independence of the mass media against the political and economic powers; it imposes the principle of specialty with respect to companies that own general information media; it treats and supports the latter in a non-discriminatory fashion and prevents their concentration, notably through multiple or inter-locking financial interests.
Article 36
1.    All Citizens have the right, without prior notification or permission, to assemble peaceably and unarmed.
2.    With regard to open air assemblies, this right may be restricted by or pursuant to a law.
3.    The right of all citizens to demonstrate is recognized.
Article 37
1.    Citizens have the right to form associations freely and without requiring any authorization provided such associations are not intended to promote violence and their objectives are not contrary to the criminal law.
2.    Associations may pursue their objectives freely without interference by any public authority.  They cannot be dissolved by the State and their activities may not be suspended except by judicial decision in the cases provided by law.
3.    No one is obliged to join any association or forced by any means to remain in it.
4.    Armed, military-type, militarized, or paramilitary associations outside the State and the Armed Forces are not permitted.
Article 38
All citizens have the right to objective information about the acts of the State and other public bodies and to be informed by the Government Bodies about the management of public affairs.
Article 39
1.    All citizens have the right to petition in writing to any Government Bodies.
2.    No one shall be in any way discriminated against for sponsoring a petition.
3.    The rules and procedure for the petition and the examination thereof shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law.
Article 40
All citizens, either personally or through associations that purport to defend the interests at stake, enjoys the right to actio popularis in the cases and under the conditions provided by law, notably the right to promote the prevention, the suppression, and the prosecution of offences against public health, the environment, the quality of life, and the cultural heritage, as well as to claim the corresponding damages for the aggrieved party or parties.
Article 41
All citizens have the right to enter the civil service under conditions of equality and freedom, generally through public competitions.
Article 42
1.    Election, referendum, and plebiscite shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the voters.
2.    All citizens have the right and the opportunity:
a)    to be registered as a voters;
b)    to vote by secret ballot in any election, referendum, or plebiscite; and
c)    to be candidate for public office and, if elected, hold office.
3.    The right to vote may not be limited except for incapacity; a sentence or order by the courts; and for an active member of the Armed Forces and Police of the Great Novakian Republic.
4.    No one may be discriminated against in his or her assignment to a specific post, employment, professional career, or social benefits to which he or she has a right because of the exercise of political rights or the holding of public office.
5.    With respect to access to elective office, this Constitution establishes only such limitations as are necessary in order to secure the voters freedom of choice as well as the unbiased and independent carrying out of the functions that go with the office.
6.    The spouse, children, and relatives by blood or marriage up to the second degree, or by adoption, of the President of the Republic, of the Governor of a Province or Metropolitan City, of a Mayor of County or City, are not eligible in the jurisdiction of the incumbent, unless they already hold an elective office and are candidates for re-election.
Article 43
1.    The law defines the conditions under which the citizens residing abroad effectively exercise their electoral right.
2.    A constituency of Great Novakians abroad is established for the election of the House of Representatives and the Senate, to which a fixed number of seats is assigned in accordance with criteria determined by law.
Article 44
1.    All citizens have the right to freely associate in political parties in order to contribute by democratic methods to determine national policy.
2.    Political parties have to publicly account for the sources and use of their funds and for their assets. Only citizen of Great Novakia may make a contribution or donation to a political party registered in the Great Novakia Republic.
3.    Political parties may not exercise public power directly. Accordingly, no single party may exercise exclusive control of a Government Body. In the interest of ensuring the separation of political parties and public power, the law shall determine those functions and public offices which may not be held by party members or officers.
4.    Political parties which, by reason of their aims or the behavior of their adherents, seek to impair or abolish the free democratic basic order or to endanger the existence of the Great Novakian Republic are unconstitutional. The Constitutional Court decides on the question of unconstitutionality. Details are regulated by law.
Article 45
The political parties represented in the House of Representatives and not in the Council of Ministers, in particular have the right to be informed regularly and directly by the Council of Ministers on the progress of the main matters of public interest.
Article 46
1.    Property is public or private.
2.    The right of private property shall be protected by law.
3.    Everyone shall have the right to have property, possess, use and dispose of it both personally and jointly with other people.
4.    The law shall establish special conditions for land utilization in order to ensure its proper use.
5.    Arable land shall be used for agricultural purposes only. Any change in purposes shall be allowed only in exceptional circumstances, when necessity has been proven, and on terms and by a procedure established by a law.
6.    No one may be deprived of property other than by a court decision.
7.    Forced confiscation of property for state needs may be carried out for the purpose of public utilities, necessary national defense, exploitation of national resources, town and country planning, promotion and preservation of the quality of the environment, agricultural or industrial development, land reform, conservation of ancient monument and historic sites, or other public interests, and fair compensation shall be paid in due course to the owner thereof as well as to all persons having the rights thereto.
8.    The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.
Article 47
1.    Foreigners may acquire ownership rights to real estate under conditions provided by law.
2.    Foreigners may not acquire title to land except by inheritance, under the condition of reciprocity.
Article 48
1.    Everyone shall have the right to free use of his abilities and property for entrepreneurial and economic activities not prohibited by law.
2.    Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, and to protection against unemployment.
3.    Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
4.    Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic conditions of work. The methods of implementing this right and the obligations of employers shall be specified by law.
5.    Workers shall have the right to statutorily specified days free from work as well as annual paid holidays; the maximum permissible hours of work shall be specified by law.
6.    Workers are entitled to remuneration commensurate with the quantity and quality of their work, and in any case sufficient to ensure to them and their families a free and honorable existence.
Article 49
1.    The permanent employment of children under age of 15 years shall be prohibited. The types and nature of admissible employment shall be specified by law.
2.    Working conditions must allow women to fulfill their essential family duties and ensure an adequate protection of mothers and children.
3.    The state shall especially try to safeguard the economic and social rights of Great Novakian workers abroad and orient its policy toward their return.
Article 50
1.    Trade unions, employers' associations, and vocational associations shall be established and shall carry out their activity according to their statutes, according to the law. They shall contribute to the protection of rights and the promotion of their members' vocational, economic, and social interests.
2.    Trade unions and employers and their organizations shall have the right to bargain, particularly for the purpose of resolving collective disputes, and to conclude collective labor agreements and other arrangements.
Article 51
1.    The right to strike is safeguarded.
2.    Trade unions shall have the right to organize workers' strikes or other forms of protest subject to limitations specified by law. For protection of the public interest, law may limit or forbid the conduct of strikes by specified categories of employees or in specific fields.
3.    Workers are entitled to decide what interests are to be protected by means of strikes. The sphere of such interests is not be restricted by law.
4.    Lock-outs are prohibited.
Article 52
1.    Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
2.    Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Great Novakian Republic.
Article 53
1.    The State recognizes the family as the natural primary and fundamental unit group of society, and as a moral institution possessing inalienable and imprescriptible rights, antecedent and superior to all positive law.
2.    The State acknowledges that the primary and natural educator of the child is the family and guarantees to respect the inalienable right and duty of parents to provide, according to their means, for the religious and moral, intellectual, physical and social education of their children.
3.    It is the duty of parents to assist, raise, and educate their minor children, and it is the duty of children of age to help and assist their parents in old age, need or sickness.
Article 54
1.    Everyone has the right to education with safeguard of the right to equal opportunities of access to and success in schooling.
2.    Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of fulfillment of schooling obligations shall be specified by law.
3.    Education in public schools shall be without payment. Laws may allow for payments for certain services provided by public institutions of higher education.
4.    The right to establish private schools is guaranteed.
5.    Higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
6.    Independence, professionalism, and political impartiality of education and the autonomy of institutions of higher education are guaranteed under the conditions as prescribed by law.
Article 55
1.    Everyone has the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.
2.    Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established by law.
3.    Based upon the principles of human dignity and responsible parenthood, family planning is a free option of the couple, it being incumbent upon the State to provide educational and scientific resources for the exercise of such right and any coercion being forbidden.
Article 56
  1. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.
2.    Those who cannot obtain the means necessary for a life of dignity have the right to receive indispensable subsistence and care.
3.    Everyone shall be guaranteed by law the right to basic subsistence in the event of unemployment, illness, employment injury, and disability and during old age as well as at the birth of a child or death of a family member.
Article 57
Everyone has the right to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
Article 58
1.    Everyone has the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced human environment and the duty to defend it.
2.    Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.
Article 59
Everyone have the right to choose the languages or languages for communication in private or public atmosphere.
Article 60
1.    Everyone have the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
2.    The rights of authors, inventors, scientists, engineers, and artists are protected by law.
Article 61
Mothers shall be the object of special protection on the part of the State and shall be guaranteed prenatal and postnatal leave, free obstetric care, alleviated working conditions and other social assistance.
Article 62
1.    Children, particularly orphans and abandoned children, are entitled to special protection by society and the State against any form of discrimination and oppression and against abuses of authority in the family and other institutions.
2.    The law severely punishes abuse, violence, and sexual exploitation of children.
3.    The State shall support families and others responsible for providing for children so that they have the ability to ensure the wellbeing and personal development of the children.
4.    Children are not to be separated from their parents unless the latter fail to perform their fundamental duties towards the former, and then only by judicial decision.
5.    Adoption is regulated and protected in accordance with the law.
6.    Full legal and social protection for children born out of wedlock is guaranteed by law, consistent with the rights of other family members.
Article 63
The State shall take necessary measures to protect the youth from smoking, alcohol, drug addiction, pornography, pre-marital sex, crime, gambling, and similar vices, and ignorance.
Article 64
The State shall protect the widows and orphans of those killed in war and in the line of duty, together with the disabled and war veterans, and ensure that they enjoy a decent standard of living.
Article 65
1.    Citizens who are physically or mentally disabled enjoy all the rights and be subject to all the duties embodied in the Constitution, except for the exercise or performance of those for which their disablement renders them unfit.
2.    The State shall provide, in accordance with law, aid to disabled persons to ensure their subsistence, adaptation to work and social communication.
Article 66
1.    Persons assembling as to be a community, local community or traditional local community shall have the right to conserve or restore their social organization, customs, languages, creeds, and traditions recognized, as well as their native rights to the lands they traditionally occupy, local wisdom, arts or good culture of their community and of the nation and participate in the management, maintenance and exploitation of natural resources, the environment and biological diversity in a balanced and sustainable fashion.
2.    Lands traditionally occupied is those on which they live on a permanent basis, those used for their productive activities, those which are indispensable to preserve the environmental resources required for their wellbeing and those necessary for their physical and cultural reproduction, according to their sues, customs, and traditions.
3.    The right of a person to participate with State and communities in the preservation and exploitation of natural resources and biological diversity and in the protection, promotion and conservation of the quality of the environment for usual and consistent survival in the environment which is not hazardous to his health and sanitary condition, welfare or quality of life, shall be protected appropriately.
4.    Any project or activity which may seriously affect the quality of the environment, natural resources and biological diversity shall not be permitted, unless its impacts on the quality of the environment and on health of the people in the communities have been studied and evaluated and consultation with the public and interested parties have been organized, and opinions of an independent organization, consisting of representatives from private environmental and health organizations and from higher education institutions providing studies in the field of environment, natural resources or health, have been obtained prior to the operation of such project or activity.
Article 67
In accordance with principles specified by law, citizens whose constitutional freedoms or rights have been infringed, shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Court for its judgment on the conformity to the Constitution of a law or other legal acts upon which basis a court or organ of public administration has made a final decision on his freedoms or rights or on his obligations specified in the Constitution.  
Article 68
In accordance with principles specified by law, everyone shall have the right to apply to the Human Rights Commission for assistance in protection of his freedoms or rights infringed by organs of public authority.
Article 69
Any limitation upon the exercise of constitutional freedoms and rights may be imposed only by law, and only when necessary in a democratic state for the protection of its security or public order, or to protect the natural environment, health or public morals, or the freedoms and rights of other persons. Such limitations shall not violate the essence of freedoms and rights.

 

Section 3 Fundamental Duties

Article 70
Loyalty to the Great Novakian Republic, as well as concern for the common good, shall be the duty of every Great Novakian citizen.
Article 71
Everyone shall observe the law of the Great Novakian Republic.
Article 72
Everyone shall respect the freedoms and rights of others.
Article 73
Voting is compulsory for citizens over 18 years of age and optional for illiterate citizens, citizens over 16 and under 18 years of age, or citizens over 70 years of age. Its exercise is a civic duty.
Article 74
Everyone shall contribute to the sustenance of public expenditures according to their economic capacity through a just tax system based on the principles of equality and progressive taxation which in no case shall be of a confiscatory scope.
Article 75
1.    It shall be the duty of every Great Novakian citizen to defend the Homeland.
2.    Males who have attained the age of eighteen years can be required to serve in the Armed Forces. For women, military service is voluntary.
3.    A person who refuses, on grounds of conscience, to render war service involving the use of arms can be required to render a substitute service. The duration of such substitute service may not exceed the duration of military service. Details are regulated by law which may not interfere with the freedom to take a decision based on conscience and which must also provide for the possibility of a substitute service not connected with units of the Armed Forces.
4.    Persons liable to military service who are not required to render service pursuant to Paragraph 3 can, during state of emergency or martial law, be assigned by or pursuant to law to an employment involving civilian services for defense purposes, including the protection of the civilian population; assignments to employments subject to public law are only admissible for the purpose of discharging police functions or such other functions of public administration as can only be discharged by persons employed under public law. Employments according to the first sentence of this paragraph can also be established with the Armed Forces, in the area of their supply services, or with public administrative authorities; assignments to employment connected with supply services for the civilian population are only admissible to provide for their vital provisions or to guarantee their safety.
5.    Where, during a state of emergency or martial law, civilian service requirements in the civilian health system or in the stationary military hospital organization cannot be met on a voluntary basis, women between eighteen and fifty five years of age can be assigned to such services by or pursuant to a law. They may in no case be obliged to render service involving the use of arms.
Article 76
Everyone shall care for the quality of the environment and shall be held responsible for causing its degradation. The principles of such responsibility shall be specified by law.

CHAPTER IV

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF FUNDAMENTAL THE STATE POLICIES


Section 1 Foreign Policy

Article 77
1.    In its international relations, the Great Novakian Republic is governed by the principles of national independence, respect for human rights, the right of peoples to self-determination and independence, equality among States, the peaceful settlement of international disputes, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, and co-operation with all other peoples for the emancipation and progress of mankind.
2.    The State advocates the abolition of all forms of imperialism, colonialism, and aggression, and simultaneous and controlled general disarmament, with a view to the creation of an international order capable of safeguarding peace and justice in the relations among peoples.
3.    The State recognizes the right of peoples to revolt against all forms of oppression, in particular colonialism and imperialism.
Article 78
The State repudiates war as an instrument offending the liberty of the peoples and as a means for settling international disputes; it agrees to limitations of sovereignty where they are necessary to allow for a legal system of peace and justice between nations, provided the principle of equality between states is guaranteed; it promotes and encourages international organizations furthering such ends.

Section 2 Politic Policy

Article 79
1.    The political system is based on the free and voluntary foundation and free competition of political parties respecting fundamental democratic principles and rejecting force as a means for asserting their interests.
2.    Ideological diversity shall be recognized in the Great Novakian Republic.
3.    No ideology shall be proclaimed as state ideology or as obligatory.
Article 80
1.    The State shall encourage and support public participation in the determination of public policy and the making of economic and social development plan both in the national and local level.
2.    The State shall support and provide education to the public related to the development of politics and public administration under the democratic regime, and encourage the public to exercise their rights to vote honestly and uprightly.

Section 3 Law and Justice Policy

Article 81
1.    The State shall ensure the compliance with, and the enforcement of, the law to be correct, quick, fair and thorough, enhancing the provision of legal assistances and knowledge to the public, providing efficient public service system and other State affairs in relation to the administration of justice with due regard to the participation of the public and the profession organizations, and providing legal aids service to the public.
2.    The State shall protect rights and liberties of individual from any violation irrespective of whether such violation has been done by a State official or other persons, and providing justice to the public on an equal basis.

Section 4 Public Administration Policy

Article 82
1.    The State shall develop working system of public sector with due regard to the development of quality, merit and ethics of State officials along the line with the improvement of working processes for the efficiency of State administration, and encourage State agencies to apply the good public governance principle in the performance of their official duties.
2.    The State shall organize officials work and other works of State with a view to enhance quick, efficiency, transparency and accountability in making or providing public services and with due regard to public consultation.

Section 5 Economy Policy

Article 83
1.    The economy of the Great Novakian Republic shall be based on free economic initiative.
2.    The State shall establish and guarantee equal legal conditions for economic activity to all citizens and legal entities by preventing any abuse of a monopoly status and unfair competition.
3.    The State shall promote an increase in the social and economic well-being and the quality of life of the people, especially the most underprivileged classes.
4.    The State shall undertake the necessary corrections with respect to imbalances in the distribution of wealth and income.
5.    The State shall guide the economic and social development towards balanced growth of all sectors and regions and to progressively eliminate the economic and social differences between rural and urban areas.
Article 84
1.    All investments and economic activity by citizens and legal entities shall enjoy the protection of the law.
2.    All investments and economic activity by foreigners or legal entities is regulated by law, to ensure that they contribute to the country's development and to safeguard national independence and the interests of the workers.
Article 85
The national economic development shall be carried out by a joint effort undertaken by the public sector, the private sector and the cooperative working together.
Article 86
1.    The public sector comprises the means of production that belong to and are managed by the State or other public bodies.
2.    The State shall enjoy exclusive ownership rights over the underground resources; beaches and national thoroughfares, as well as over waters, forests and parks of national importance, and the natural and archaeological reserves established by law.
3.    The State shall exercise sovereign rights in prospecting, developing, utilizing, protecting and managing the continental shelf and the exclusive off-shore economic zone, and the biological, mineral and energy resources therein.
4.    The State shall exercise sovereign rights with respect to radio frequency spectrum and the geostationary orbital positions allocated by international agreements to the Great Novakian Republic.
5.    A state monopoly shall be establish by law over the national postal and telecommunications networks, the use of nuclear energy, the manufacturing of radioactive products, armaments and explosive and powerful toxic substances.
6.    The conditions and procedure by which the State shall grant concessions over units of property and licenses for the activities enumerated in the preceding four paragraphs shall be established by law.
7.    The State shall utilize and manage all the state's assets to the benefit of individual and society.
Article 87
1.    The private sector comprises the means of production that belong to or are managed by private persons or private corporate bodies.
2.    The State supervises compliance with the Constitution and the law on the part of private businesses and protects small and medium-sized economically viable businesses.
3.    The State intervenes in the management of private businesses only on a temporary basis, where the law expressly provides to that effect, and, as a rule, subsequently to a judicial decision.
Article 88
1.    The cooperative sector comprises the means of production that belong to and are managed by cooperatives in accordance with the cooperative principles;
2.    The State recognizes the social function of cooperation for mutual benefit free of private speculation. The law promotes and encourages its implementation with suitable provisions and ensures its character and purposes through proper controls.
3.    Fiscal and financial concessions to cooperatives and more favorable conditions for borrowing and for obtaining technical assistance are determined by law.
Article 89
The State shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programs to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
Article 90
The State shall protect consumers, hirers or lessees against activities threatening their health, privacy and safety, as well as against dishonest market practices. The scope of such protection shall be specified by law.
Article 91
The State shall protect and maintain the interests of farmers in production and marketing, ensuring maximize profits of the agricultural products, and encouraging an association of farmers having with a view to agricultural planning and the protection of their mutual interests.
Article 92
1.    The State shall increase the competition and productivity of industries.
2.    The State shall encourage agricultural and mining products transformation industry with a view to increase value added thereto.
Article 93
The State shall promote trade, investment and tourism with other countries.
Article 94
The State shall provide infrastructures and transportations necessarily for the living of people with a view to maintain economic security of State.
Article 95
The State shall draw up a scientific and technological policy that furthers the country's development.
Article 96
The State shall adopt a national energies policy that is in keeping with the conservation of natural resources and ecological balances.

Section 6 Religion Policy

Article 97
1.    The State guarantees not to endow any religion.
2.    The State shall promote good understanding and harmony among followers of all religions as well as encourage the application of religious principles to create virtue and develop the quality of life.

Section 7 Education, Public Health, Culture, and Social Policy

Article 98
1.    Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and for the maintenance of peace.
2.    The State shall develop quality and standard in providing education at all levels and forms to be in line with economic and social changes.
3.    The State shall assist students in all grades of basic education, by means of supplementary programs providing school materials, transportation, food, and health care.
4.    The State shall provide development of quality of teachers and educational personnel to meet the current changing in the present day world.
5.    Pupils of ability and merit, even if lacking financial resources, have the right to attain the highest grades of studies. The State furthers the realization of this right by scholarships, allowances to families, and other provisions, to be assigned through competitive examinations.
6.    The State shall be encourage or intensify fundamental education as far as possible for those persons who have not received or completed the whole period of their primary education.
Article 99
1.    Health policy aimed at reducing the risk of illness and other hazards and at universal and equal access to all actions and services for the promotion, protection and recovery of health.
2.    Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by the State to citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of services shall be established by law.
3.    The State shall exercise control over all medical facilities and over the production and trade in pharmaceuticals, biologically active substances and medical equipment.
4.    The State shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, disabled people, and persons of old age.
5.    The State shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of degradation of the environment.
Article 100
The State shall promote physical education, particularly amongst children and young persons and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
Article 101
1.      The State shall encourage and instill the right awareness of national unity and learning, and instill and make known of arts, tradition and culture of the nation as well as good value and local wisdom.
2.      The Great Novakian Republic cultural heritage consists of assets of material and immaterial nature, considered either individually or as a whole, which bear reference to the identity, action, and memory of the various groups of Great Novakian society, which include:
a)    forms of expression;
b)    forms of creating, doing, and living;
c)    scientific, artistic, and technological creations;
d)    works, objects, documents, constructions, and other spaces intended for artistic and cultural manifestations;
e)    urban complexes and sites of historical, natural, artistic, archaeological, paleontological, ecological, and scientific value.
3.      The State with the community's cooperation promotes and protects Great Novakian cultural heritage by means of inventories, records, surveillance, monument decrees, expropriation, and other forms of precaution and preservation.
4.      The law establishes incentives for the production and knowledge of cultural assets and values.
5.      Damages and threats to cultural heritage are punished according to the law.
Article 102
1.    The State shall, pursuant to the law, to organize social security aimed at ensuring the rights to health, social security, and social assistance, based on the following objectives:
a)    universality of coverage and service;
b)    uniformity and equivalence of benefits and services for urban and rural populations;
c)    selectivity and distributivity in the provision of benefits and services;
d)    irreducibility of the value of the benefits;
e)    diversity of financing basis;
f)     democratic and decentralized character of administration, by means of quadripartite management, with the participation of worker, employers, retirees, and the State in the collegiate bodies.
2.    The social security system is organized as a general scheme, of a contributory basis and mandatory participation, with due regard for criteria that preserve financial and actuarial balance, and provides for, in accordance with the law:
a)    coverage for the events of illness, disability, death, and old age;
b)    protection to maternity, especially to pregnant women;
c)    protection to workers in a situation of involuntary unemployment and employment injury;
d)    family allowance and confinement allowance for the dependents of the low-income insured;
e)    pension for death of the insured, man or woman, to the spouse or companion, and dependents.
3.    The private social security scheme, of a complementary nature and organized on an autonomous basis as regards the general social security scheme, is optional, based on the formation of reserves which guarantee the contracted benefit, and regulated by a law.
4.    Social assistance is rendered to whomever may need it, regardless of contribution to social security, and has the following objectives:
a)    to protect the family, maternity, childhood, adolescence, and old age;
b)    to assist needy children and adolescents;
c)    to promote integration into the employment market;
d)    to habilitate and rehabilitate the disabled and provide for their integration into the community;
e)    to guarantee a monthly benefit of one minimum wage to the disabled and the elderly who prove that they are incapable of providing for their own support or to have their family provide for their support, as established in the law.
Article 103
The State shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular combating homelessness, promoting the development of low-income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition of a home by each citizen.

Section 8 Environment Policy

Article 104
1.    The State shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and future generations.
2.    The State shall prepare and apply the rule on the use of land throughout the country with due regard to the compliance with environmental condition, nature of land and water and the way of life of local communities, the efficient measures for preservation of natural resources, the sustainable standard for land use and opinion of the people in the area who may be affected by the rule on the use of land.
3.    The State shall prepare spatial planning, and develop and carry out the plan effectively and efficiently for the purpose of sustainable preservation of natural resources.
4.    The State shall demand, according to the law, for the installation of works or activities, which may cause significant degradation of the environment, a prior environment impact study, which is made public;
5.    The State shall conduct the promotion, conservation and protection of the quality of the environment under the sustainable development principle, and control and eliminate pollution which may affect health and sanitary, welfare and quality of life of the public.
6.    The State shall control the production, marketing, and use of techniques, methods, and substances that represent a risk to life, to the quality of life, and to the environment;
7.    The State shall protect the fauna and the flora, all practices, which jeopardize their ecological function, cause the extinction of species or subject animals to cruelty being forbidden according to the law.
8.    Those who explore mineral resources are required to restore the degraded environment according to the technical solution required by the proper Government Bodies, according to the law.
9.    The State shall support the activities of citizens to protect and improve the quality of the environment.

CHAPTER V

LEGISLATIVE POWER


Article 105
1.    The Congress, the parliament of the Great Novakian Republic, shall be the representative and legislative body of the Great Novakian Republic.
2.    The Congress consists of two chambers the House of Representatives and the Senate.
3.    Joint or separate sittings of the Congress shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
Article 106
The Congress holds joint session only in cases defined by the constitution in the following cases :
a)    the opening of the session of the Congress;
b)    the making of the rules of procedure of the Congress;
c)    to administer the oath of office to the President-elect;
d)    to receive the message of the President of the Republic;
e)    the consideration speeches of the leaders of foreign states;
f)     the approval of the declaration of war;
g)    the approval of sending the armed forces outside the territory of the Great Novakian Republic or the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic;
h)    the approval of the Great Novakian Republic's participation in the defensive systems of an international organization of which the Great Novakian Republic is a member;
i)      the hearing and approval of international treaties;
j)      to declare the state of impediment and the permanent vacancy of the President of the Republic;
k)    to elect  one third judges of the Constitutional Court;
l)      the amendment of the Constitution;
Article 107
1.    The House of Representatives shall elect from among its Representatives the Speaker of the House of Representatives and his or her deputies by a majority vote of all its respective Representatives.
2.    The Senate shall elect from among its Senators the Speaker of the Senate and his or her deputies by a majority vote of all its respective Senators.
3.    The Speaker of the House of Representatives is chairman of the Congress. The Speaker of the Senate is vice chairman of the Congress.
Article 108
1.    The House of Representatives is elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system in universal and direct suffrage.
2.    The House of Representatives is elected for a term of 4 years.
3.    Every citizen of the Great Novakian Republic who is eligible to vote and has reached the age of 21 may be elected to the House of Representatives.
4.    A person is eligible for election as a Representative if the person is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate who is supported by at least one percent registered voters in the constituency.
Article 109
1.    The House of Representatives shall consist of not more than five hundred and sixty members chosen from constituencies in the Provinces and Metropolitan Cities.
2.    There shall be allotted to each Provinces and Metropolitan Cities a number of seats in the House of Representative in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the Province and Metropolitan City is, so far as practicable, the same for all Province and Metropolitan City; and
3.    Each Province and Metropolitan Cities shall be divided into constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to its so far as practicable, the same throughout the Provinces and Metropolitan Cities.
Article 110
1.    The Senate is elected through a first-past-the-post system in universal and direct suffrage.
2.    The Senate is elected for a term of 6 years.  One third of the Senators are renewed every two years.
3.    Every citizen who is eligible to vote and has reached the age of 40 may be elected to the Senate.
4.    A person is eligible for election as a Senator :
a)    if the person is not being a member or holding any position in a political party, or having been a member or having been holding a position in a political party and his membership has terminated or he vacates office in a political party for a period of not more than five years on the date of applying for candidacy or the date of nomination.
b)    having his or her name appear on the house register in the Province or Metropolitan City where he or she stands for election for a consecutive period of not less than five years up to the date of applying for candidacy.
Article 111
1.    The Senate shall consist of not more than two hundred members acquired upon the basis of election in each Province and Metropolitan City.
2.    In an election of Senators, the area of Province and Metropolitan City shall be regarded as one constituency and the number of Senator for each Province and Metropolitan City is equal.
Article 112
1.    The term of each chamber may not be extended except by law and only in the case of war.
2.    Member of each chamber shall work on a permanent professional basis. They may not be employed in state service, engage in other paid activities, except for teaching, scientific and other creative work.
3.    No one may simultaneously be a member of both chambers of the Congress.
4.    The exercise of the office of the President of the Republic, the office of judges, and other functions, set forth by law, are incompatible with the post of Representative or Senator.
Article 113
1.    The mandate of a Representative or a Senator is effective upon his or her election.
2.    A Representative’s or a Senator's mandate expires the day he or she enters upon the office of the President of the Republic, or the day he or she assumes a judgeship or another post incompatible with the post of Representative or Senator.
3.    A Representative or a Senator may surrender his or her mandate by a declaration made personally at a session of the Chamber of which he or she is a member.  If he or she is prevented from doing so by serious circumstances, he or she may do so by a method set forth by law.
4.    A Representative's or a Senator's mandate expires upon:
a)    refusing to take the oath or taking the oath with reservations;
b)    the expiration of the term of office;
c)    his resignation;
d)    the loss of his eligibility to hold office.
5.    Representatives and Senators exercise their mandates personally in accordance with their oath and may not be bound by any directions.
6.    In case of vacancy in the House of Representatives or the Senate, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senators or Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term.
Article 114
1.    Representatives and Senators may not be held accountable for opinions expressed or votes cast in the exercise of their office.
2.    Representatives and Senators may not be subjected to searches of their person or homes without prior authorization by their chamber, nor arrested or otherwise deprived of personal freedom, nor kept in a state of detention, except on an irrevocable conviction or caught in the act of a crime for which arrest is mandatory.
3.    The same authorization is required to subject Representatives and Senators to any form of interception of their conversations or communications, and in order to seize their mail or correspondence.
Article 115
  1. The House of Representatives and the Senate shall meet in two ordinary sessions every year. The first session begins in February and is due to last by the end of June at the latest. The second session begins in September and is due to last by the end of December at the latest.
  2. The House of Representatives and the Senate may also meet in extraordinary sessions, at the request of the President of the Republic or of at least one third of the number of Representatives or Senators.
3.    Sessions of both chambers are open to public.  The public can be excluded solely under conditions stipulated by law.
Article 116
1.    Each chamber shall establish committees and commissions as its bodies.
2.    The activities of committees and commissions shall be governed by law.
Article 117
1.    It is exclusively the competence of the House of Representatives:
a)    to issue vote of confidence and no confidence in the Council of Ministers;
b)    to appoint and dismiss of the Chairman of the Bank of Great Novakia;
c)    to proclaim of amnesty;
d)    to advance charges against the President of the Republic for his impeachment.
2.    The House of Representatives shall adopt resolutions on the issues referred to its authority by the Constitution.
Article 118
1.    It is exclusively the competence of the Senate:
a)    approval of a presidential decree of introduction of martial law and a state of emergency;
b)    impeachment of the President of the Republic;
c)    to give its prior approval, by secret ballot, after public hearing, on appointment to the Chief of Supreme Court of Justice and the Chief of Supreme Administrative Court;
d)    to give its prior approval, by secret ballot, after public hearing, on appointment:
                                      i.        eleven of the members of the Judicial Commission;
                                     ii.        members of the National Audit Office;
                                    iii.        members of the Election Commission;
                                   iv.        members of the Counter Corruption Commission;
                                    v.        members of the Human Right Commission;
                                   vi.        members of the Civil Service Commission;
                                  vii.        members of the Ombudsman;
                                 viii.        members of the Media Commission;
                                   ix.        holders of other offices as determined by the law;
e)    to give its prior approval, by secret ballot, after public hearing, on appointment and removing of the higher command of the Armed Forces;
f)     to give its prior approval, by secret ballot, after public hearing, on appointment and dismissal of the Attorney General and Inspector General of Police.
g)    to give its prior approval, by secret ballot, after closed hearing, on accreditation and recalling of heads of diplomatic missions of the Great Novakian Republic;
2.    The Senate shall adopt resolutions on the issues referred to its authority by the Constitution.
Article 119
1.    The House of Representatives is entitled to examine the administration of affairs by the Council of Ministers, to interpellate its members about all subjects of its execution, and to demand all relevant information as well as to ventilate in resolutions their wishes about exercise of the executive power.
2.    The detailed regulations respecting the right of interpellation will be settled by law.
Article 120
1.    The House of Representatives may appoint investigating Commissions at the request of one third of its members, on any subject of public interest.  Their conclusions shall not be binding on the courts nor will they affect judicial decisions, but they may be transmitted to the Public Prosecutor for the exercise of the necessary actions when required.
2.    Appearance before the House of Representatives on request shall be obligatory.  The law shall regulate the sanctions which may be imposed for noncompliance with this obligation.
Article 121
2.    Answers to written questions should be in written form within a maximum time limit of thirty days.
3.    Answers to oral questions are given in session.
4.    If one of the two chambers considers that oral or written answers of a member of the the Council of Ministers justifies a debate, this latter is opened in accordance with the conditions provided for by the rules of procedure of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Article 122
1.    The members of the Council of Ministers have the right to attend the meetings of each chamber, their committees, or commissions. They shall be given the opportunity to speak whenever they request.
2.    The Chambers and their Commissions may require the presence of the members of the Council of Ministers.
·         Members of the Council of Ministers are obliged to appear in person at a meeting of the meetings of each chamber, their committees, or commissions, if it so resolves. In which case, however, a member of the Council of Ministers may have a deputy or another member of the Council of Ministers appear in his stead if his personal participation has not been explicitly demanded.
Article 123
1.    The Chambers constitute a quorum if at least one half of their members are present.
2.    The passage of a resolution of the respective Chamber requires consent of a simple majority of Representatives or Senators present, if not prescribed otherwise by the Constitution.
Article 124
An absolute majority of all Representatives and an absolute majority of all Senators is required for the adoption:
a)    a resolution declaring a state of war in the event that the Great Novakian Republic is attacked or if it is necessary to meet international treaty obligations concerning joint defense against aggression and assign the necessary powers to the President of the Republic;
b)    a resolution concerning the Great Novakian Republic's participation in the defensive systems of an international organization of which the Great Novakian Republic is a member;
c)    a resolution granting assent to sending the armed forces outside the territory of the Great Novakian Republic or the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic;
d)    the ratification of treaties affecting the rights or duties of persons; of alliance, peace, or other political nature; by which the Great Novakian Republic becomes a member of an international organization; of a general economic nature; and concerning additional matters, the regulation of which is reserved to law.
Article 125
1.    The President of the Republic can dissolve the House of Representatives if:
a)    the House of Representatives passes a vote of non-confidence in a newly appointed the Council of Ministers whose Prime Minister was appointed by the President of the Republic on the suggestion of the Speaker of the House of Representatives;
b)    the House of Representatives fails to decide within three months on a The Council of Ministers draft law with the discussion of which the Council of Ministers links the question of confidence;
c)    the House of Representatives has not reached a quorum for a period longer than three months, although its session was not adjourned and although it was repeatedly called to session during this period.
2.    The House of Representatives cannot be dissolved three months before the expiration of its election term, while a state of emergency or martial law operate in the whole territory of the Great Novakian Republic, as well as during six months before the term of the President of the Republic expires.
3.    The reelection of new the House of Representatives must take place within sixty days from the dissolution of the previous ones. The first session has to take place no later than twenty days after elections.
4.    The previous House of Representatives retain their powers until the new chambers meet.
5.    No further dissolution may take place within a year following this reelection.
Article 126
The work of the House of Representatives and the Senate and its commissions or committees is assisted by a permanent staff of technical and administrative officials and by specialists appointed or temporarily employed.
Article 127
The House of Representatives and the Senate have the power to make the rules of procedure governing the election and performance of duties of the speakers, deputies of speakers, matters or activities which are within the powers and duties of each committee or commission, sittings, submission and consideration of law, consultation, debate, passing of a resolution, recording and disclosure of the passing of a resolution, interpellation, general debate, observation of the rules and orders and other relevant matters and the power to make the codes of ethics of members and other matters for the execution under this Constitution.

CHAPTER VI

LEGISLATION PROCESS


Article 128
1.    Draft laws are submitted to the House of Representatives.
2.    A draft law may be initiate by:
a)    the Council of Ministers;
b)    to each member of the chambers of not less than twenty in number;
c)    to those organs and bodies assigned by constitutional law, only for the laws relating to the administration of their organizations;
d)    the citizens may introduce public initiatives consisting of a law drafted in articles and supported by at least one percent of voters, distributed throughout at one quarter of the country's Provinces and Metropolitan Cities, with no less than three-tenths percent of the voters of each of these Provinces and Metropolitan Cities.
Article 129
1.    A draft law on the State Budget, as well as the imposition, repeal, reduction, alteration, modification, remission, or regulation of taxes or duties; the raising of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties or any binding of State’s properties; and currency; are presented by the Council of Ministers.
2.    These draft proposals are discussed and decided on only by the House of Representatives at a public session.
Article 130
1.    The Council of Ministers has the right to comment on all draft laws.
2.    If the Council of Ministers fails to express its opinion within thirty days of the delivery of a draft law, it is assumed that it has expressed itself positively.
3.    The Council of Ministers has the right to demand that the House of Representatives complete discussing a Council of Ministers draft law within three months of its submission, as long as the Council of Ministers links with it a request for a vote of confidence.
Article 131
1.    A draft law shall be approved by a majority of votes of the total number of the Representatives, unless otherwise envisaged by the Constitution.
2.    The House of Representatives shall be submitted a draft law which it has approved to the Senate within five days without unnecessary delay.
Article 132
1.    The Senate discusses a draft law and decided upon it within a period of 30 days of its advancement.
2.    With its resolution, the Senate approves the draft law or turns it down, or returns it to the House of Representative with draft amendments, or expresses its intention not to concern itself with it.
3.    If the Senate fails to express its resolution within a period of 30 days, it is assumed that the draft law was passed.
4.    If the Senate rejects a draft law, the chambers may create a conciliatory commission for overcoming the contradictions that arose, after which the draft law shall be reconsidered by the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives votes on it again.  A draft law is passed if it is approved by an absolute majority of all Representatives.
5.    If the Senate returns a draft law to the House of Representatives with draft amendments, the House of Representatives votes on the wording approved by the Senate.  With its resolution, the draft law is passed.
6.    If the House of Representatives fail to pass a draft law in the wording approved by the Senate, it votes once again on the version of the draft law advanced to the Senate.  A draft law is passed if it is approved by an absolute majority of all Representatives.
7.    In discussion of a rejected or returned draft law in the House of Representatives draft amendments are inadmissible.
8.    If the Senate expresses its intention not to concern itself with a draft law, it is passed with this declaration.
Article 133
1.    The President of the Republic has the right to return an adopted law, except a constitutional amendment, giving explanation, within 15 days of the day of its advancement.
2.    The House of Representatives votes on the rejected law once again.  Draft amendments are inadmissible.  If the House of Representatives reapprove the returned law by an absolute majority of all Representatives, the law is promulgated.  Otherwise it is assumed that the law was not passed.
3.    Adopted laws are signed by the President of the Republic.
Article 134
1.    In order for a law to be valid, it must be promulgated. 
2.    The manner in which laws and treaties are to be promulgated is provided for by law.
Article135
1.    When requested by at least one percent of voters, distributed throughout at one quarter of the country's Provinces and Metropolitan Cities, with no less than three-tenths percent of the voters of each of these Provinces and Metropolitan Cities, a popular referendum decides on total or partial repeal of a law or other acts with legal force.
2.    No such referenda are allowed for tax or budget laws, amnesties, pardons, or ratification of international treaties.
3.    The referendum succeeds if a majority of those eligible have participated and if the proposal has received a majority of the valid votes.
4.    The law establishes procedures for such referenda.

CHAPTER VII

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC



Article 136
The President of the Republic is the guarantor of national independence and the integrity of the territory.
Article 137
1.    The President of the Republic is elected for six years by direct universal suffrage.
2.    Every citizen of the Great Novakian Republic who is eligible for election as a Representative and has reached the age of 35 may be elected to the President of the Republic.
  1. The candidate who, in the first ballot, obtained a majority of votes of the voters entered on the electoral lists and he or she has not less than one-quarter of the votes cast at the election in each of at least two-thirds of all the Provinces and Metropolitan Cities in the Great Novakian Republic shall be declared elected.
  2. In case no candidate has obtained such a majority, a second ballot shall be held between the first two candidates highest in the order of the number of votes cast for them in the first ballot. The second ballot hat to be held within twenty days after announcement of the results of first ballot. The candidate having the greatest number of votes shall be declared elected.
5.    No one may carry out more than two consecutive terms of office.
6.    The President of the Republic, prior to taking office, has to swear before the Congress in joint session an oath of allegiance to the Republic and the constitution.
7.    The President of the Republic shall take up his powers from the moment of taking the oath of loyalty and cease to fulfill them with the expiration of the term of office and from the moment a newly-elected president is sworn in.
Article 138
The office of President of the Republic is incompatible with all other public, social and political offices or mandates. The President of the Republic shall not be otherwise gainfully employed and shall not accept remuneration for other activities, with the exception of such activities which fall under the protection of copyright.
Article 139
1.    If the President of the Republic, because of serious and long-lasting illness, happens to be in the impossibility to carry out his functions, the Constitutional Court meets de jure, and after having verified the reality of the impediment by the appropriate means, proposes, unanimously, to the Congress to declare the state of impediment.
2.    In joint session, the Congress declares the state of impediment of the President of the Republic and charges the Speaker of the Senate, to stand for the Acting President of the Republic until the newly elected President enters office.
3.    In case of resignation or death of the President of the Republic, the Constitutional Court meets de jure and ascertains the permanent vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic and immediately communicates the permanent vacancy declaration act to the Congress.
4.    In joint session, the Congress declares the state of the permanent vacancy of the President of the Republic and charges the Speaker of the Senate, to stand for the Acting President of the Republic until the newly elected President enters office.
5.    In all case, the election of the President of the Republic shall take place not later than three months from the termination of the powers.
6.    The Acting President of the Republic cannot be candidate to the President of the Republic. The Acting President of the Republic also shall have no right to dissolve the House of Representatives and submit proposals on amendments to Constitution of the Great Novakian Republic.
7.    While acting as the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the Senate may not exercise his powers as a Senator, and his duties as Speaker of Senate shall be attended to by the Deputy Speaker of Senate.
Article 140
1.    The President of the Republic may be impeached by the Senate only on the basis of charges of violation of the Constitution, high treason or another grave crime, advanced by the House of Representatives and confirmed by the conclusion of the Supreme Court of Justice on the presence of the elements of a crime in the actions of the President of the Republic and by the conclusion of the Constitutional Court confirming that the rules for advancing the charges were observed.
2.    High treason shall consist only in levying war against the State, or assisting any State or person or inciting or conspiring with any person to levy war against the State, or attempting by force of arms or other violent means to overthrow the organs of State established by this Constitution, or taking part or being concerned in or inciting or conspiring with any person to make or to take part or be concerned in any such attempt.
3.    The decision of the House of Representatives on advancing charges and the decision of the Senate on impeaching the President shall be adopted by two thirds of the votes of the total number of members of each chamber and on the initiative of not less than one third of the Representatives and with the conclusion of a special commission set up by the House of Representatives.
4.    The decision of the Senate on impeaching the President of the Republic shall be adopted not later than three months after the House of Representatives advanced the charges against the President of the Republic. If a decision of the Senate is not adopted during this time, the charges against the President shall be regarded as rejected.
Article 141
1.    The President of the Republic shall determine the guidelines of the internal and foreign policies of the Great Novakian Republic.
2.    The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister; upon his or her the suggestion appoints and dismisses other members of the Council of Ministers, entrusts them with managing the ministries; and also accepts their resignations.
3.    The President of the Republic may dissolve the House of Representatives in case and according the rules established by Constitution. Prior to dissolve the House of Representative, the President of the Republic is required to request the opinions of the Prime Minister, the Speaker of House of Representatives and the leaders of the parties represented in the House of Representatives.
4.    The President of the Republic entrusts the Council of Ministers whose resignation he or she has accepted, or which he or she has recalled, with the temporary performance of its duties until a new Council of Ministers is appointed.
Article 142
1.    The President of the Republic may at any time, convene a meeting of either or both of the chambers of Congress.
2.    The President may communicate with the Congress by message or address on any matter of national or public importance.
3.    The President of the Republic has the right to return to the House of Representatives laws it has adopted, with the exception of constitutional acts.
4.    The President of the Republic signs laws.
Article 143
The President of the Republic shall:
a)    represents the state externally;
b)    negotiates and sign international treaties; he or she may delegate the negotiation of international treaties to the Council of Ministers or, with its consent, to individual members thereof;
c)    sign ratification instruments;
d)    accredits and recalls heads of diplomatic missions of the Great Novakian Republic after consultations with the Senate;
e)    receives credentials and letters of recall heads of diplomatic missions from foreign States.
Article144
1.    The President of the Republic is the supreme commander of the armed forces, he or she declares war according to the decision of the Congress;
2.    The President of the Republic has right to appoint and remove the higher command of the Armed Forces after consultations with the Senate.
3.    The President of the Republic, after consultation with the National Security Council, may decide to send the armed forces of the Great Novakian Republic outside the territory of the Great Novakian Republic and to allow the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic for a period not exceeding 60 days, in matters concerning:
a)    the fulfillment of obligations pursuant to treaties on collective self-defense against aggression;
b)    participation in peace-keeping operations pursuant to the decision of an international organization of which the Great Novakian Republic is a member, if the receiving state consents;
c)    participation in rescue operations in cases of natural catastrophe, industrial or ecological accidents.

4.    The President of the Republic, after consultation with the National Security Council, may also decide:
a)    on the transfer of the armed forces of other states across the territory of the Great Novakian Republic and on their flight over over the territory of the Great Novakian Republic;
b)    on the participation of the armed forces of the Great Novakian Republic in military exercises outside the territory of the Great Novakian Republic and on the participation of the armed forces of other states in military exercises within the territory of the Great Novakian Republic.
5.    Without delay the President of the Republic informs both chambers of Congress concerning any decisions it makes pursuant to paragraph 3 and 4. The Congress may annul the President of the Republic's decisions; in order to annul such decisions of the President of the Republic, the disapproving resolution of one of the chambers, adopted by an absolute majority of all its members, suffices.
Article 145
The President of the Republic has the right :
a)    to appoint one third judges of the Constitutional Court;
b)    present to the Senate a candidate for the appointment to the post of the Attorney General, raise before the Senate the issue of dismissing the Attorney General;
c)    to grant pardons or commute sentences imposed by courts and order that a criminal record be expunged after hearing the Supreme Court of Justice;
d)    to issue amnesties. The President of the Republic needs the consent of the House of Representatives in granting a general amnesty.
Article 146
The President of the Republic may grant and award state honors.
Article 147
The President of the Republic shall :
a)    present to the House of Representatives a candidate for the appointment to the post of the Chairman of the Bank of Great Novakia, raise before the House of Representatives the issue of dismissing the Chairman of the Central Bank;
b)    present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Election Commission;
c)    present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Counter Corruption Commission;
d)    present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Human Rights Commission;
e)    present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Civil Service Commission;
f)     present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Ombudsman;
g)    present to the Senate candidate for the appointment members of the Media Commission;
h)    present to the Senate a candidate for the appointment to the post of the Inspector General of Police, raise before the Senate the issue of dismissing the Inspector General of Police;
i)      appoint and dismiss Plenipotentiary as representatives of the President of the Republic upon proposal of the Council of Ministers in each Provinces and Metropolitan Cities.
Article 148
1.    The President of the Republic shall issue decrees.
2.    The decrees of the President of the Republic shall be obligatory for fulfillment in the whole territory of the Great Novakia Republic.
3.    The decrees of the President of the Republic shall not run counter to the Constitution and laws.
Article 149
1.    The President of the Republic may consult with the Council of Ministers about urgent, extremely important matters.
2.    The President of the Republic may participate in the meetings of the Council of Ministers debating upon matters of national interest with regard to foreign policy, the defense of the country, ensure of public order, and, at the Prime Minister's request, in other instances as well.
3.    The President of the Republic shall preside over the Council of Ministers meetings he or she participates in.
Article 150
1.    There shall be a Council of State to aid and counsel the President of the Republic on all matters on which the President may consult in relation to the exercise and performance by him of such of his powers and functions as are by this Constitution.
2.    The Council of State shall consist of the following members:
a)     ex-officio members: Former elected Presidents of the Republic; the Prime Minister, the Chief of Constitutional Court, the Chief of Supreme Court of Justice, the Chief of Supreme Administrative Court, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Speaker of the Senate, the Auditor General, the Chairman of the Bank of Great Novakia, the Attorney General, the Chairman of the Human Rights Commission, the Chairman of the Counter Corruption Commission, the Chairman of the Ombudsman, and all Governors of Provinces and Metropolitan Cities of the Great Novakian Republic;
b)    five members appointed by the President of the Republic.
Article 151
1.    There shall be a National Security Council which shall consist of :
a)    the Prime Minister;
b)    the Ministers for the time being holding the portfolios of foreign affairs, defense, security, home affairs, justice, and finance and such other Ministers as the President of Republid may determine;
c)    the Chief of Armed Forces;
d)    the Commanders of the Army, the Border Guard, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the Air Force, the Strategic Missiles Troops, the Aerospace Defense Forces, the Cyber Force, and the Home Guard;
e)    the Inspector-General of Police and three other members of the Police of the Great Novakia Republic
f)     three members appointed by the President.
2.    The President may appoint additional participants when appropriate.
3.    The President shall preside at meetings of the National Security Council.
4.    The National Security Council shall submit to the President of the Republic its views on the advisory decisions that are taken and ensuring the necessary condition with regard to the formulation, establishment, and implementation of the national security policy of the State. The President of the Republic shall evaluate decisions of the National Security Council concerning the measures that it deems necessary for the preservation of the existence and independence of the state, the integrity and indivisibility of the country and the peace and security of society.

CHAPTER VIII

THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

                           
Article 152
1.    The Council of Ministers is the supreme body of executive power.
2.    The Prime Minister, the Deputies of Prime Minister and the Ministers jointly constituting the Council of Ministers.
Article 153
1.    The Council of Ministers is accountable to the House of Representatives.
2.    The House of Representatives may pass a vote of no confidence in the Council of Ministers.
3.    The House of Representatives discusses a proposal for a vote of no confidence in The Council of Ministers only if it is submitted in writing by no less than 50 Representatives. Passing the proposal requires the consent of an absolute majority of all Representatives.
Article 154
1.    The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minster and, on his or her suggestion, appoints other members of the Council of Minister and entrusts them with managing the ministries.
2.    The Council of Ministers, within 14 days following the day of their appointment by the President of the Republic submit a program of activity of the Council of Ministers to the House of Representative, together with a request for a vote of confidence.
3.    If the newly appointed The Council of Ministers fails to obtain the confidence of the House of Representatives, the procedure advances in accordance with Paragraphs 2.  If even the Council Ministers, appointed in this way, fails to obtain the confidence of the House of Representatives, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister upon the suggestion of the Speaker of House of Representatives.
Article 155
1.    The Prime Minister offers his resignation to the President of the Republic.  Other members of the Council of Ministers offer their resignations to the President of the Republic through the Prime Minister.
2.    The Council of Ministers offers its resignation if the House of Representative rejects its request for a vote of confidence or if it passes a vote of no confidence.  The Council of Ministers always offers its resignation after session of a newly elected House of Representatives.
3.    If the Council of Ministers offers its resignation according to Paragraph 2, the President of the Republic must accept it.
4.    The President of the Republic dismisses a Member of the Council of Minister, if this is proposed by the Prime Minister.

1.    The Prime Minister conducts and is responsible for the general policy of the Council of Ministers. He or she organizes the activities of the Council of Ministers, chairs its meetings, promoting and coordinating the activities of the ministers, acts in its name, ensures the unity of general political and administrative policies, and executes further activities entrusted to him by the Constitution or by other laws.
2.    The Prime Minister is represented by a Deputy Premier or another authorized member of the Council of Ministers.
Article 157
The ministers are jointly responsible for decisions of the council of ministers and individually for those of their ministries.
Article 158
  1. Ministries shall be organized only in subordination to the Council of Ministers.
2.    Rules concerning the role of the Prime Minister and the number, responsibilities and organization of the ministries are determined by law.
  1. The other administrative agencies can be established and their powers defined only by law. Other administrative agencies may be organized in subordination to the Council of Ministers or Ministries, or as autonomous administrative authorities.
Article 159
The Council of Ministers shall:
a)    develop and submit to the House of Representatives a State Budget and provide for its implementation; shall submit to the House of Representative a report on the implementation of the State Budget; and shall submit to the House of Representatives annual reports on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the House of Representatives;
b)    ensure the implementation in the Great Novakian Republic of a single state policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, health protection, social security and ecology;
c)    manages the State property;
d)    carry out measures to secure the defense of the country, the state security, and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Great Novakian Republic;
e)    implement measures to ensure the rule of law, human rights and freedoms, protection of property and public order, and crime control;
f)     exercise other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Great Novakian Republic, the laws and decrees of the President of the Republic.
Article 160
The Council of Ministers, by means of law, may plan the general economic activity to attend to collective needs, balance and harmonize regional and sector development, and stimulate the growth of income and wealth and their more equitable distribution.
Article 161
1.    The Council of Ministers makes decisions as a body.
2.    The passage of a resolution of the Council of Ministers requires the consent of an absolute majority of all its members.
3.    On the basis and for the sake of implementation of the Constitution, laws, decrees of the President of the Republic, the Council of Ministers shall issue executive orders and ensure their implementation.
4.    The executive orders are signed by the Prime Minister and a respective member of the Council of Ministers.
5.    The executive orders of the Council of Ministers shall be obligatory for fulfillment in the Great Novakian Republic.
Article 162
1.    The National Economic and Social Council has the duties to give advice and recommendations to the Council of Ministers on economic and social problems as well as related laws.
2.    A national economic and social development plan and other plans as provided by law shall obtain opinions of the National Economic and Social Council before they can be adopted and published.
3.    The National Economic and Social Council at the request of the Council of Ministers or its own initiative may conduct study and make strategic analyses of macro-economic and structural reform options.
4.    The composition, sources, powers and duties and operation of the National Economic and Social Council shall be in accordance with the provisions of law.

CHAPTER IX JUDICIAL POWER

 

Article 163
1.    The judiciary bodies are independent. It is exercised within the framework of the law.
2.    The judiciary bodies protect the society and the liberties. It guarantees, to all and to everyone, the safeguard of their fundamental rights.
Article 164
1.    Justice is founded on the principles of lawfulness and equality.
2.    It is the same for all, accessible for all and is expressed by the respect of the law.
3.    Punishments should comply with the principles of lawfulness and individuality.
4.    All the qualified the Government bodies should ensure, at any time, in any place and in any circumstances, the execution of justice decisions.
Article 165
2.    Judges are independent according to their conscience in the trial and adjudication of cases with accurate, rapid and impartial practice in accordance with the Constitution and the law.
3.    Judges shall not be political officials or hold political positions.
4.    Judges shall be provided with appropriate conditions for work and granted remuneration consistent with the dignity of their office and the scope of their duties.  
Article 166
1.    The Constitutional Court shall consist of 15 judges, one third of who shall be elected by the Congress in joint session, one third shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, and one third shall be elected by a joint meeting of the judges of the Supreme Court of Justice and the Supreme Administrative Court.
2.    The judges of the Constitutional Court shall be elected or appointed for a period of 9 years and shall not be eligible for reelection or reappointment. The make-up of the Constitutional Court shall be renewed every three years from each quota, in a rotation order established by law.
3.    The judges of the Constitutional Court are chosen from among judges including those in retirement, from among Supreme Court of Justice and Supreme Administrative Courts, from among university full professors of law, and from among lawyers of high professional and moral integrity with at least twenty years of practice.
4.    The judges of the Constitutional Court shall elect by secret ballot a Chief of the Constitutional Court for a period of three years.
5.    The status of a judge of the Constitutional Court shall be incompatible with a Representative mandate, or any state or public post, or membership in a political party or trade union, or with the practicing of a free, commercial, or any other paid occupation.
6.    The judges of the Constitutional Court enjoy such safeguards with respect to their being independent, irremovable, impartial, and not responsible, and be subject to such incompatibilities, as judges in the other courts enjoy and are subject to.
7.    The law lays down the other rules concerning the status of the judges of the Constitutional Court.
Article 167
1.    The Constitutional Court shall:
a)    provide binding interpretations of the Constitution;
b)    rule on constitutionality of the laws and other acts passed by the President of the Republic, Council of Ministers and its members, Council and Mayor of Counties or Cities, Parliament and Governor of Province or Metropolitan City;
c)    resolve disputes arising over the allocation of powers between branches of government within the State; between the State, Provinces or Metropolitan Cities, and  Counties and or Cities; and between Provinces and or Metropolitan Cities and or Counties and or Cities;
d)    rule on challenges to the constitutionality of political party;
e)    rule on challenges to the legality of the election of the House of Representatives, Senate, President of the Republic, Council and Mayor of Counties or Cities, Parliament and Governor of Province or Metropolitan City;
f)     upon complaints about violations of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and upon court requests shall check, according to the rules fixed by law, the constitutionality of a law applied or subject to be applied in a concrete case.
g)    to verify the reality of the impediment on the permanent physical inability because serious and long-lasting illness of the President of the Republic;
h)    to ascertain the permanent vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic in case of resignation or death;
i)      upon the request of the Senate, shall provide a conclusion on the observance of the fixed procedure for advancing charges of violation of the Constitution, high treason or of another grave crime against the President of the Republic.
2.    The premise for a decision by the Constitutional Court in challenges to the result of initiatives or referenda will be prescribed by law. How long, in view of the possibility of such a challenge, it is necessary to retard publication of the law about which a referendum took place, can also be enacted by law.
Article 168
1.    Decisions of the Constitutional Court shall be of universally binding application and shall be final.
2.    No authority of the Constitutional Court shall be vested or suspended by law.
3.    Any act found to be unconstitutional shall cease to apply as of the date on which the decision shall come into force. Any portion of a law which is not ruled unconstitutional shall remain in force.
Article 169
1.    The Courts of Justice have the power to try and adjudicate civil, commercial and criminal matters except or the law to be within the jurisdiction of other Courts.
2.    There shall be three levels of Courts of Justice, viz, Courts of First Instance, Courts of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Justice, except otherwise provided by this Constitution or other laws.
3.    The Supreme Court of Justice is composed of the Chief of the Court and the requisite number of Judges.
4.    The judges of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed and dismissed by the Judicial Commission.
5.    A person shall not be appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Justice unless he or she is a citizen of Great Novakia and has for a period of, or for periods aggregating, not less than five years been a judge of Court of Appeal.
6.    The Chief of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed by the Senate for a 6-year term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the judges of the Supreme Court of Justice.
7.    The Supreme Court of Justice has the power to try and adjudicate cases provided by the Constitution or the law to submit directly to the Supreme Court of Justice and appeals against judgments or orders of Courts of First Instance or Courts of Appeal as provided by law, except where the Supreme Court of Justice is of the opinion that the question of law or the question of fact of the such appeals is not essential for decision, it has the power to refuse the acceptance of such cases for consideration in accordance with the rule provided by its general meeting.
Article 170
1.    The Administrative Courts have the power to try and adjudicate administrative matters except or the law to be within the jurisdiction of other Courts.
2.    There shall be the Supreme Administrative Court and Administrative Courts of First Instance, and there may also be the Appellate Administrative Court.
3.    The Supreme Administrative Court is composed of the Chief of the Court and the requisite number of Judges.
4.    The judges of the Supreme Administrative Court shall be appointed and dismissed by the Judicial Commission.
5.    A person shall not be appointed a judge of the Supreme Administrative Court unless he or she is a citizen of Great Novakia and has for a period of, or for periods aggregating, not less than five years been a judge of  Appellate Administrative Court.
6.    The Chief of the Supreme Administrative Court shall be appointed by the Senate for a 6-year term of office from amongst candidates proposed by the General Assembly of the judges of the Supreme Administrative Court.
Article 171
1.    The State may establish military criminal courts for the Armed Forces. They may only exercise criminal jurisdiction while a martial law exists. Details are regulated by a law.
2.    Provisions on special courts of law, administering justice in specifically defined fields, are laid down by law.
Article 172
1.    The structure of the prosecution office shall correspond to that of the courts.
2.    The prosecution office shall ensure that legality is observed:
a)    leading the investigation and supervising the legality thereof;
b)    may conduct investigation;
c)    bringing charges against criminal suspects and supporting the charges in indictable cases;
d)    overseeing the enforcement of penalties and other measures of compulsion;
e)    acting for the rescission of all inlawful acts;
f)     taking part in civil and administrative suits whenever required to do so by law.
3.    Public Prosecutors, as a whole, have an independent and autonomous status in conformity with the law.
4.    Public Prosecutors cannot be transferred, suspended, retired, or dismissed except as provided by law.
5.    The Attorney General is the highest authority in public prosecution.
6.    The Attorney General has the power to appoint, assign, transfer, and promote the Public Prosecutors; he also has the power to exercise disciplinary action against the latter.
7.    The Attorney General shall be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate.
Article 173
1.    The Judicial Commission has the exclusive competence to appoint, assign, remove, promote, and discipline judges of courts of justice and courts of administrative.
2.    Appointment of the judges is based on competitive examinations. 
3.    The judges may not be dismissed, suspended, or moved to other jurisdictions or functions except either by decision of the Judicial Commission for reasons and with opportunity of defense as defined by law, or by their own consent.
4.    The Judicial Commission shall consist of 25 members. Sitting on it ex officio shall be the Chief of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Chief of the Supreme Administrative Court and the Attorney General.
5.    Eligible for election to the Judicial Commission besides its ex officio members shall   university full professors of law or practicing lawyers of high professional and moral integrity with at least 15 years of professional experience.
6.    Eleven of the members of the Judicial Commission shall be elected by the Senate and eleven shall be elected by a joint meeting of the judges of the Supreme Court of Justice and the Supreme Administrative Court.
7.    The elected members of the Judicial Commission shall serve terms of five years. They shall not be eligible for immediate reelection.
8.    The mandate of an elected member of the Judicial Commission shall expire upon any of the following occurrences:
a)    resignation;
b)    final judicial act for a committed crime;
c)    permanent de facto inability to perform his/her duties for more than one year;
d)    disciplinary removal from office or deprival from the right to pursue legal profession or activity.
9.    In case of termination of the mandate of an elected member of the Judicial Commission, a new member from the same quota shall be elected, who shall hold the office until the expiry of the mandate.

CHAPTER X

NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE


Article 174
1.    The National Audit Office shall be an independent state institution with responsibility for checking the Budget of the State and economic management of the State and the public sector.
2.    National Audit Office shall supervise:
a)    the economic activity of Government of the State, Government of the Province or Metropolitan City, and Government of County or City;
b)    the use and preservation of state assets;
c)    the economic activity of such enterprises where the State has over half of the votes determined by the shares or stocks, or whose loans or contractual obligations are guaranteed by the State.
3.    The National Audit Office shall carry out its review and control activities bearing in mind the aspects of legality, expediency and efficiency.
Article 175
1.    The National Audit Office consists of twelve members appointed by the Senate for a term of office of nine years, which cannot be extended or renewed.  Members of the National Audit Office shall be renewed with one third of the members appointed by the Senate, every three years.
  1. Members of the National Audit Office shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration. They shall be subject to the incompatibilities the law stipulates for judges.
3.    The members of the National Audit Office are appointed among Great Novakians who satisfy the following requirements:
a)    more than thirty-five and less than sixty-five years of age;
b)    moral integrity and unblemished reputation;
c)    notorious knowledge of the law, accounting, economics, and finances or of government administration;
d)    more than ten years of practice or of actual professional activity requiring the knowledge  mentioned in the preceding item.
4.    Members of the National Audit Office shall elect by secret ballot an Auditor General of the National Audit Office for a period of three years.
Article 176
1.    The National Audit Office shall present to the House of Representatives an annual report on the use and preservation of state assets which, when applicable, lists the violations or responsibilities, which in its opinion have occurred during the previous budget year. Its report shall be made public.
2.    The National Audit Office shall have the right to participate in sessions of the Council of Ministers with the right to speak on issues related to their duties.

CHAPTER XI

INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATIONS


Article 177
1.    The Independent Organizations, which shall be independent, are the Election Commission, the Counter Corruption Commission, the Human Rights Commission, the Civil Service Commission, the Ombudsman, and the Media Commission.
2.    The Independent Organizations shall appoint their employees in accordance with law.
3.    Each the Independent Organizations en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.
Article 178
1.    The Election Commission shall have the following power and duties:
a)    control and hold, or cause to be held, an election of the House of Representatives, the Senate, the President of the Republic, Council and Mayor of Counties or Cities, Parliament and Governor of Province or Metropolitan City; as the case may be, including the voting in a referendum and plebiscite for the purpose of rendering it to proceed in honest and fair manner;
b)    arrange and conduct the registration of persons qualified to vote and prepare, maintain and revise the register of voters for the purpose of any election under this Constitution;
c)    register political parties;
d)    demarcate the constituencies boundaries for  election of the House of Representatives, the Senate, Council of Counties or Cities, Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City; due consideration to its physical features, the means of communication within the area, the geographical distribution of registered voters, and any community of interest as between registered voters;
e)    monitor political campaigns and provide its rules and regulations;
f)     educate the people on the electoral process and its purpose;
g)    monitor the organization and operation of the political parties, including their finances;
h)    arrange for the annual examination and auditing of the funds and accounts of political parties, and publish a report on such examination and audit for public information;
i)      submit to the House of Representatives and the Senate, a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election and referendum;
j)      carry out such other functions as may be conferred upon it by a law.
2.    There shall be seven member of the Election Commission who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the persons who holders of a college degree, must not have been candidates for any elective positions in the immediately preceding elections, and have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.
3.    Member of the Election Commission shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
4.    Members of the Election Commission shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
5.    Members of the Election Commission shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Election Commission.
Article 179
1.    The Counter Corruption Commission shall have the following powers and duties:
a)    to investigate and expose cases of corruption in the public sectors;
b)    to combat corruption, theft, misappropriation, abuse of power and other improper conduct in the public sectors;
c)    to promote honesty, financial discipline and transparency in the public sectors;
d)    to receive and consider complaints from the public and to take such action in regard to the complaints as it considers appropriate;
e)    to make recommendations to the House of Representatives and the Council of Ministers on measures to enhance integrity and accountability and prevent improper conduct in the public sectors.
2.    There shall be eight member of the Counter Corruption Commission who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the person who having been a Minister, a member of the Election Commissioner, a member of the Ombudsman, a member of the Human Rights Commission, or a member of the National Audit Office, or having served in a position of not lower than a Director-General or a person holding an administrative position in a Government Body having administrative powers equivalent to a Director-General or a person holding an academic position of not lower than Professor, or a representative of a private development organization or a professional practitioner of a professional organization established under the law who practices such profession for not less than thirty years whom certified and nominated to the selection by such private development organization or professional organization.
3.    Members of the Counter Corruption Commission shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
4.    Members of the Counter Corruption Commission shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
5.    Members of the Counter Corruption Commission shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Counter Corruption Commission.
Article 180
1.    The Human Rights Commission has the powers and duties as follows:
a)    to examine and report the commission or omission of acts which violate human rights or which do not comply with obligations under international treaties to which the Great Novakian Republic is a party, and propose appropriate remedial measures to the person or agency committing or omitting such acts for taking action. In the case where it appears that no action has been taken as proposed, the Commission shall report to the House of Representatives for further proceeding;
b)    to submit the case together with opinions to the Constitutional Court in the case where the Commission agrees with the complainant that the provisions of any law are detrimental to human rights and beg the question of the constitutionality as provided by law;
c)    to bring the case to the Courts of Justice for the injured person upon request of such person if it deems appropriate for the resolution of human rights violation problem as a whole as provided by law;
d)    to propose to the House of Representatives and the Council of Ministers policies and recommendations with regard to the revision of laws, rules or regulations for the promotion and protection of human rights;
e)    to promote education, researches and the dissemination of knowledge on human rights;
f)     to prepare an annual report for the appraisal of situations in the sphere of human rights in the country and submit it to the House of Representatives;
g)    other powers and duties as provided by law.
2.    There shall be fifteen member of the Human Rights Commission who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the persons having apparent knowledge and experiences in the protection of rights and liberties of the people with due regard to the participation of Representatives from private organizations in the field of human rights.
3.    Members of the Human Rights Commission shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
4.    Members of the Human Rights Commission shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
5.    Members of the Human Rights Commission shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Human Rights Commission.
Article 181
1.    The Civil Service Commission has the powers and duties as follows:
a)    to ensure appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination;
b)    to establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service;
c)    to strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability;
d)    to submit to the House of Representatives and the Council of Ministers an annual report on its personnel programs.
2.    There shall be seven member of the Civil Service Commission who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the persons who proven capacity for public administration.
3.    Members of the Civil Service Commission shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
4.    Members of the Civil Service Commission shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
5.    Members of the Civil Service Commission shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Civil Service Commission.
Article 182
1.    The Ombudsman has the powers and duties as follows:
a)    Investigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient.
b)    Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or employee of the Government Body, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as of any State-owned or controlled enterprise with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties.
c)    Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault, and recommend his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith.
d)    Request any Government Bodies for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents.
e)    Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence.
f)     Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and corruption in the Government Bodies and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency.
g)    Report the result of its investigation and performance together with comments to the Council of Ministers and the House of Representatives annually.
h)    May submit a case to the Constitutional Court or Administrative Court in the following cases in accordance with law.
2.    There shall be nine member of the Ombudsman who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the persons recognized and respected by the public, with knowledge and experience in the administration of State affairs, enterprises or activities of common interests of the public and with apparent integrity.
3.    Members of the Ombudsman shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
4.    Members of the Ombudsman shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
5.    Members of the Ombudsman shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Ombudsman.
Article 183
1.    The Media Commission secures the right to information, the freedom of the press, the independence of the mass media against the political and economic powers, the possibility of expression and confrontation of the different lines of opinion, as well as the exercise of the right to broadcasting time, the right of reply and the right of political argument.
2.    The Media Commission has the powers and duties as follows:
a)    to uphold, promote and develop freedom of the media;
b)    to promote and enforce good practices and ethics in the media;
c)    to monitor broadcasting in the public interest and, in particular, to ensure fairness and diversity of views broadly representing Great Novakian society;
d)    to encourage the formulation of codes of conduct for persons employed in the media and, where no such code exists, to formulate and enforce one;
e)    to receive and consider complaints from the public and, where appropriate, to take action against journalists and other persons employed in the media or broadcasting who are found to have breached any law or any code of conduct applicable to them;
f)     to ensure that the people of Great Novakia have fair and wide access to information;
g)    to give an opinion prior to any decision concerning the licensing of private radio and television channels; such a decision, if favorable, falls only upon an application that will have been the subject of a favorable opinion;
h)    to give an opinion prior to the appointment and removal of the directors of the mass media belonging to the State, to other public bodies or to bodies directly or indirectly under the economic control of the State;
i)      to promote fair competition and diversity in the media; and
j)      to conduct research into issues relating to freedom of the press and of expression, and in that regard to promote reforms in the law.
3.    There shall be nine member of the Media Commission who shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate from the persons who have integrity and competence in administration and knowledge and understanding of human rights issues and the best practices in media matters.
4.    Members of the Media Commission shall hold office for a term of six years as from the date of their appointment by the President of the Republic and shall serve for only one term.
5.    Members of the Media Commission shall be independent in exercising their term of office and irremovable throughout its duration.
6.    Members of the Media Commission shall elect by secret ballot a Chairman of the Media Commission.

CHAPTER XII

FINANCE AND STATE BUDGET


Article 184
1.    The currency in the Great Novakian Republic shall be the Great Novakian Dollar. Introduction and issue of other currencies in Great Novakia shall not be allowed.
2.    The Bank of Great Novakia, in its capacity of central bank, has exclusive rights to issue money as well as to formulate and implement monetary policy.
3.    Protecting and ensuring the stability of the Great Novakian Dollar shall be the major task of the Bank of Great Novakia, which it shall fulfill independently of the other bodies of State authority.
4.    The organization and powers of the Bank of Great Novakia, as well as more detailed provisions, shall be set down in a law.
Article 185
1.    The fiscal system aims at satisfying the financial needs of the State and other public bodies, as well as a fair partition of the incomes and the wealth.
2.    The imposition of taxes, as well as other public imposts, the specification of those subject to the tax and the rates of taxation, as well as the principles for granting tax reliefs and remissions, along with categories of taxpayers exempt from taxation, shall be by means of law.
3.    No one may be compelled to pay taxes which have not been created as provided in the Constitution and whose settlement and collection are not effected in the forms laid down by law.
  1. Local taxes and duties shall be established by the Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City or Council of County of City, within the limits and under the terms of the law.
Article 186
1.    The Budget of the State includes:
a)    The breakdown of the revenues and the expenditures of the State;
b)    The budget of the social security.
2.    The Budget of the State is a single unit and specifies expenditure according to the applicable organic or functional classification so as to prevent the existence of secret appropriations and funds; it may also be structured according to programs.
3.    The Council of Ministers must present to the House of Representatives the Budgets of the State at least three months before the expiration of those of the previous year.
4.    If the Budget law is not approved before the first day of the corresponding fiscal year, the Budgets of the previous fiscal year will automatically be considered extended until the approval of the new ones.
5.    The Law on Budgets cannot create taxes.  It can modify them when a substantive tax law so provides.
Article 187
1.    The contracting of loans as well as granting guarantees and financial sureties by the State shall be done in accordance with principles and by procedures specified by law.
2.    It shall be neither permissible to contract loans nor provide guarantees and financial sureties which would engender a national public debt exceeding three-fifths of the value of the annual gross domestic product. The method for calculating the value of the annual gross domestic product and national public debt shall be specified by law.

CHAPTER XIII

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION


Article 188
1.    The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including State-owned or controlled enterprises.
2.    Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination.
3.    No officer or personnel of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law.
4.    No officer or personnel in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign.
Article 189
1.    Official and personnel in the civil service are responsible on civil, criminal, and disciplinary grounds for actions and omissions performed in the exercise and because of their functions which result in infringements of the legally protected rights or interests of the citizens; taking action or proceedings thereupon is not subject at any stage to approval by a higher authority.
2.    Officials and personnel in the civil service who acts in accordance with orders or instructions on a service matter from his legitimate superior cannot be held liable, provided that he previously requested or required that they should be given or confirmed in writing.
3.    The duty of obedience ceases whenever the carrying out of orders or instructions involves committing some criminal offence.
4.    The conditions on which the State are entitled to recover the amount of indemnities previously paid by them from officials and their personnel are regulated by law.
Article 190
1.    Persons holding the following political positions shall submit an account showing particulars of assets and liabilities of themselves, their spouses and children who have not yet become sui juris to the Counter Corruption Commission on each occasion of taking or vacating office:
a)    President of the Republic
b)    Prime Minister;
c)    Deputies of Prime Minister
d)    Ministers;
e)    Representatives;
f)     Senators;
g)    Deputies of Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City;
h)    Governor of Province or Metropolitan City;
i)      Deputies of Council of County or City;
j)      Mayor of County or City;
k)     Other political officials as provided by law.
2.    The account showing particulars of assets and liabilities and supporting documents submitted by the President of the Republic, Prime Minister, Deputies of Prime Ministers, Ministers, Representatives and Senators shall be disclosed to public without delay but not later than thirty days as from the date of the expiration of the time limit for the submission of such account. The account of the persons holding other positions shall be disclosed in the case where the disclosure thereof may be beneficial to the trial and adjudication of case or for the making of decision and a request is made by the Courts, an interest person or the National Audit Office.
3.    The Counter Corruption Commission shall convene a meeting to inspect the accuracy and the actual existence of assets and liabilities without delay.
4.    Any person holding a political position who intentionally fails to submit the account showing assets and liabilities and the supporting documents as provided in this Constitution or intentionally submits the same with false statements or conceals the facts which should be revealed, the Counter Corruption Commission shall refer the matter to the Supreme Court of Justice for further decision.
5.    The Counter Corruption Commission may disclose the account showing particulars of assets and liabilities as submitted to interested parties if such disclosure is beneficial to the trial or decision of offences as provided by law.

CHAPTER XIV

NATIONAL REFERENDUM


Article 191
1.    The President of the Republic may order a national referendum on crucial national matters following a resolution voted by an absolute majority of the total number of Representatives, taken upon proposal of the Council of Ministers.
2.    A national referendum may be held for reaching a decision or for an expression of opinion. Carrying out a national referendum may be mandatory or may be the result of the consideration of a matter.
Article 192
National referendum may not be held on the following subjects:
a)    on laws on the State budget, the execution of the State budget, taxes and duties, or customs tariffs;
b)    obligations set forth in valid international treaties and on the contents of laws prescribing such obligations;
c)    dissolution of the Parliament;
d)    declaration of a state of war and a state of emergency;
e)    use of the Armed Forces abroad or within the country;
f)     amnesty.
Article 193
1.    A national ratification referendum shall be considered successful if more than half of the votes of the citizens voting are valid, but at least more than one-quarter of all eligible voters have given the same answer in the referendum.
2.    If a national referendum is mandatory, the result of the successfully held national referendum shall be binding for the House of Representatives.

CHAPTER XV NATIONAL DEFENSE AND SECURITY


Article 194
1.    The Armed Forces of the Great Novakian Republic, constituting the Army, the Border Guard, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the Air Force, the Strategic Missiles Troops, the Aerospace Defense Forces, the Cyber Force, and the Home Guard, are permanent and regular national institutions, organized on the basis of hierarchy and discipline, under the supreme authority of the President of the Republic.
2.    The Armed Forces shall safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the State, and shall ensure the security and inviolability of its borders.
3.    The Armed Forces are exclusively composed of Great Novakian citizens.
4.    The Armed Forces shall observe neutrality regarding political matters and shall be subject to civil and democratic control.
5.    The Armed Forces are at the service of the Great Novakian people.  They are strictly non-partisan and their members may not take advantage of their weapons, posts, or functions for any political intervention.
6.    The Armed Forces may cooperate in the accomplishment of tasks connected with the satisfaction of basic needs and the improvement of the quality of life of the population, including situations of public calamity not justifying the suspension of the exercise of rights.
7.    A law that makes provision for the martial law and the state of emergency determines the conditions under which the Armed Forces may be used in those circumstances.
Acts with the potential to and undertaken with intent to disturb the peaceful relations between nations, especially to prepare aggression, are unconstitutional. They have to be made a criminal offence.
Article 196
1.    The Police of the Great Novakian Republic has function to defense democratic legality and the rights, freedoms, and safeguards of citizens.
2.    The Police measures are provided for by law and may not be used beyond what is strictly necessary.
3.    The Police has the powers and duties as follows:
a)    to preserve the internal security of the Great Novakian Republic;
b)    to maintain law and order;
c)    to protect and secure the lives and property of the people;
d)    to detect, investigate, and prevent of crimes, including crimes against the security of the State;
e)    to hinder and repress illegal traffic of narcotics and like drugs, smuggling and contraband;
f)     to ostensibly patrol the national highways and railways.
4.    The Police of the Great Novakia shall be headed by an Inspector General appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Senate.
5.    The law determines the system governing the security forces, each of which has a single organization for the whole national territory.

CHAPTER XVI

STATE OF EMERGENCY AND MARTIAL LAW


Article 197
1.    In the event of natural disaster, dangerous epidemic diseases or a serious economic crisis, the President of the Republic after official consultation with the Council of Ministers, may declare a state of emergency in one or more regions or throughout the country for a period not exceeding six months.
2.    In the event of serious indications of widespread acts of violence aimed at the destruction of the free democratic order established by the Constitution or of fundamental rights and freedoms, or serious deterioration of public order because of acts of violence, the President of the Republic, after official consultation with the National Security Council, may declare a state of emergency in one or more regions or throughout the country for a period not exceeding six months.
3.    In the event of a declaration of a state of emergency under the provisions of paragraph 1 and 2, this decision shall be submitted immediately to the Senate for approval. If the Senate is in recess, it shall be assembled immediately. The Senate may alter the duration of the state of emergency, extend the period for a maximum of four months only, or may lift the state of emergency.
Article 198
1.    The President of the Republic, after consultation with the National Security Council, may declare martial law in one or more regions or throughout the country for a period not exceeding six months, in the event of widespread acts of violence which are more dangerous than the cases necessitating a state of emergency and which are aimed at the destruction of the free democratic order or the fundamental rights and freedoms embodied in the Constitution; or in the event of war, the emergence of a situation necessitating war, an uprising, or the spread of violent and strong rebellious actions against the motherland and the Republic, or widespread acts of violence of either internal or external origin threatening the indivisibility of the country and the nation. This decision shall be submitted for approval to the Senate, on the same day. If the Senate is in recess, it shall be assembled immediately. The Senate may, when it deems necessary, reduce or extend the period of martial law or lift it.
2.    Extension of the period of martial law for a maximum of four months each times, shall require a decision by the Senate. In the event of state of war, the limit of four months does not apply.

CHAPTER XVII ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISONS


Article 199
1.    The State is a unitary one organized to respect the principles of the autonomy of local authorities and democratic decentralization of the administration.
2.    The State shall be divided into Provinces and Metropolitan Cities.
3.    A Province shall be divided into Counties and or Cities.
4.    The State may, by law, create Metropolitan City from Province or Provinces. The Counties and or Cities within Metropolitan City shall retain their basic autonomy.
6.    All these entities enjoy autonomy for the management of their respective interests.
Article 200
No Province, Metropolitan City, County, or City may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in law and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the entities directly affected.
Article 201
1.    A County and City shall be the basic administrative territorial unit at the level of which self-government shall be practiced. The Constitution guarantees the autonomy of the Counties and Cities. 
2.    The body of local self-government within a County or City shall be a Council of County or City elected by the residents of the County or City via universal equal, free, direct, and secret suffrage in the manner established by law.
3.    Mayor shall be the executive power within a County or City. He or she shall be elected by the residents of the County or City via universal equal, free, direct, and secret suffrage in the manner established by law. 
4.    A County and City shall be entitled to own property, which it shall use to the interest of the territorial community.
5.    A County and City shall have its own budget.
6.    A County and City’s permanent sources of revenue shall be established by law.

Article 202
1.    Within the terms of the present Constitution, the Statutes of Autonomy shall be the basic institutional norm of each Provinces and Metropolitan Cities, and the State shall recognize them and protect them as an integral part of its juridical order.
2.    The Statutes of Autonomy must contain:
a)    the name of the Province or Metropolitan City which best corresponds to its historical identity;
b)    the delimitation of its territory;
c)    the name, organization, and seat of its own autonomous institutions;
d)    the competences assumed within the framework of the Constitution and the bases for the transfer of the corresponding services to them.
Article 203
A draft of the Statutes of Autonomy is prepared by an assembly consisting of members of the Parliament of the affected Provinces or Metropolitan Cities and by the Representatives and Senators elected in them and shall be forwarded to the House of Representatives for its enactment into law.
Article 204
The Provinces and Metropolitan Cities may assume competences in the following:
a)    organization of their institutions of self-government;
b)    alterations of the Counties and Cities boundaries contained within its area;
c)    regulation of the territory, urbanism, and housing;
d)    public works of interest to the  in its own territory;
e)    railways and highways whose itinerary runs completely in the territory of the Province or Metropolitan City and within the same boundaries and transportation carried out by these means or by cable;
f)     ports of refuge, recreational ports, airports, and generally those which do not carry out commercial activities;
g)    agriculture and livestock raising in accord with the general regulations;
h)    woodlands and forestry;
i)      activities in matters of environmental protection;
j)      water projects, canals, and irrigation systems of interest to the Province and Metropolitan City and mineral and thermal waters;
k)    fishing in inland waters, hunting, and river fishing;
l)      interior fairs;
m)  promotion of the economic development of the Province and Metropolitan City within the objectives marked by the national economic policy;
n)    handicrafts;
o)    museums, libraries, and conservatories of interest to the Province and Metropolitan City;
p)    monuments of interest to the Province and Metropolitan City;
q)    promotion of culture, research, and, when applicable, the teaching of the language of the Province and Metropolitan City;
r)     promotion and regulation of tourism within its territorial area;
s)    promotion of sports and adequate utilization of leisure;
t)     social assistance;
u)    health and hygiene; and
v)    the custody and protection of its buildings and installations.
Article 205
1.    The State holds exclusive competence over the following matters:
a)    the regulation of the basic conditions which guarantee the equality of all Great Novakian in the exercise of their rights and fulfillment of their constitutional duties;
b)    nationality, immigration, emigration, alienage, and the right of asylum;
c)    international relations;
d)    defense and the Armed Forces;
e)    administration of Justice;
f)     mercantile, penal, and prison legislation, procedural legislation, without prejudice to the necessary specialties which in this order may derive from the particularities of the substantive law of the Province and Metropolitan City;
g)    labor legislation, without prejudice to its execution by the Province and Metropolitan City;
h)    civil legislation, without prejudice to the preservation, modification, and development by the Province and Metropolitan City;
i)      legislation concerning intellectual and industrial property;
j)      system of customs, tariffs, and foreign trade;
k)    monetary system, foreign credits, exchange and convertibility; the general bases for the regulation of credit, banking, and insurance;
l)      legislation on weights and measures, determination of the official time;
m)  bases and coordination of general planning and economic activity;
n)    general finance and debt of the state;
o)    promotion and general coordination of scientific and technical research;
p)    public health; bases and general coordination of health; legislation concerning pharmaceutical products;
q)    basic legislation and economic system of social security, without prejudice to the execution of its services by the Province and Metropolitan City;
r)     the bases of the legal system of the public administrations and the statutory system for its officials which shall in every case guarantee that the administered will receive a common treatment by them; a common administrative procedure, without prejudice to the specialties deriving from the particular organization of the Province and Metropolitan City; legislation on forcible expropriation; basic legislation on contracts and administrative concessions, and the system of responsibility of all public administration;
s)    maritime fishing, without prejudice to the competences attributed to the Province and Metropolitan City in the regulation of the sector;
t)     merchant marine and the ownership of ships; lighting of coasts and maritime signals; ports of general interest, airports of general interest, control of the air space, transit and transport, meteorological service and registration of aircraft;
u)    railroads and land transport which crosses through the territory of more than one Province and Metropolitan City; general communications system, traffic, and movement of motor vehicles; mail and telecommunications; aerial cables, submarine cables, and radio communication;
v)    the legislation, regulation, and concession of water resources and projects when the waters run through more than one Province and Metropolitan City and the authorization of electrical installations when their use affects another province or when the transport of energy goes beyond its territorial area;
w)   basic legislation on environmental protection without prejudice to the authority of the Province and Metropolitan City to establish additional standards of protection; basic legislation on woodlands, forestry projects, and livestock trails;
x)    public works of general interest or whose realization affects more than one Province and Metropolitan City;
y)    bases of the mining and energy system;
z)    system of production, sale, possession, and use of arms and explosives;
aa) basic norms of the system of press, radio, and television and, in general, of the other means of social communication, without prejudice to the authority which in their development and execution belong to the Province and Metropolitan City;
bb) protection of the cultural, artistic, and monument patrimony of Great Novakia against exportation and exploitation; museums, libraries, and archives belonging to the State without prejudice to their management by the Province and Metropolitan City;
cc) public security;
dd) regulations of the conditions for obtaining, issuing, approving, and standardizing academic and professional degrees;
ee) statistics for State purposes.
2.    The matters not attributed expressly to the State by this Constitution belong to the Province and Metropolitan City by virtue of their respective Statutes.  Authority over matters not assumed by the Statutes of Autonomy shall belong to the state, whose norms shall prevail in case of conflict over those of the Province and Metropolitan City in everything which is not attributed to their exclusive competence.  The law of the State shall in every case be supplementary to the law of the Province and Metropolitan City.
Article 206

1.    The State may grant, in matters within the competence of the State, to all or one of the Province and or Metropolitan City the authority to dictate for itself legislative norms within the framework of the principles, bases, and directives established by law.
2.    The State may transfer or delegate to the Province and or Metropolitan City by a law those authorities on matters within the competence of the State, which because of their own nature are susceptible to transference or delegation.  The law shall in each case contain the pertinent transfer of financial means as well as the forms of control the State reserves for itself.
Article 207
In the Statutes passed by means of the procedure referred to in the foregoing article, the institutional autonomous organization shall be based on :
a)    The Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City elected by universal suffrage in accordance with a system of proportional representation which assures, moreover, the representation of the various areas of the territory;
b)    The executive body of Province or Metropolitan City is politically responsible to the Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City; its Governor is elected by universal suffrage. The other members of the executive body of Province or Metropolitan City are appointed and dismissed by the Governor.
Article 208
2.    A Plenipotentiary appointed by the President of the Republic upon proposal of the Council of Ministers.
  1. Among the Plenipotentiaries, the Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City, and the Governors, there are no subordination relationships.
  2. The Plenipotentiary may challenge, in the Constitutional Court, an act of the Parliament of Province or Metropolitan City or the Governor, in case he deems it unconstitutional. The act thus challenged shall be suspended de jure.
Article 209
1.    If a Province or Metropolitan City does not fulfill the obligations imposed upon it by the Constitution or other laws, or should act in a manner seriously prejudicing the general interest of Great Novakia, President of the Republic on recommendation of the Council of Ministers, after lodging a complaint with the Governor and failing to receive satisfaction therefor, may, following approval granted by an absolute majority of the Senate, adopt the means necessary in order to oblige the latter forcibly to meet said obligations, or in order to protect the above-mentioned general interest.
2.    With a view to implementing the measures provided for in the foregoing paragraph, the Council of Ministers may give instructions to all the authorities of the Province and Metropolitan City.
Article 210
The law may specify the conditions, requirements, and terms under which Provinces or Metropolitan Cities may establish agreements among themselves for the administration and rendering of services pertaining to them.
Article 211
1.    The Province and Metropolitan City shall enjoy financial autonomy for the development and exercise of their competencies.
2.    The Province and Metropolitan City may act as delegates or collaborators of the State for the collection, management, and settlement of the latter's tax resources, in conformity with the law and the statutes. 

Article 212
1.    In the State Budgets, an allocation may be made to the Province and Metropolitan City in proportion to the volume of State services and State activities for which they have assumed responsibility and to their guarantee to provide a minimum level of basic public services throughout Great Novakia territory.
2.    The State may provide the Province and Metropolitan City with financial support for particularly important investments by the Province and Metropolitan City if such support is necessary:
a)    for the defense against a disturbance of the overall economic equilibrium; or
b)    to equalize differences of economic performance throughout the State territory; or
c)    for the advancement of economic growth;
d)    in the case of natural catastrophes or exceptional emergencies outside of state control and with serious negative impact on public finances.
3.    Details, in particular the kinds of investments to be supported, are regulated by a law requiring the consent of the Senate or by administrative agreement on the basis of the law about the budget. The funds are provided with a time limit and are subject to periodic examination regarding their utilization. Financial support has to be designed with decreasing yearly payments during its duration.
4.    On their request, House of Representatives, the Council of Ministers, and Senate have to receive a report about the implementation of the measures and about the improvements achieved.
Article 213
The President of the Republic on recommendation of the Council of Ministers shall provide for Regional Development Councils composed of Governor of the Provinces and or Metropolitan Cities; other government offices; and representatives from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to strengthen the autonomy of the Provinces and or Metropolitan Cities therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development of the Provinces and or Metropolitan Cities in the region.
Article 214
1.    Vlasburg is the capital of the Republic.
2.    The residents of Vlasburg shall have a full measure of self-government. Particulars shall be determined by law.

CHAPTER XVIII CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT


Article 215
1.    The draft or Proposal of amendments the Constitution of the Republic may be initiated by :
a)    the President of the Republic, on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers;
b)    the groups numbering not less than one fifth of the number of Representatives and Senators;
2.    The draft of amendments of the Constitution of the Republic must be adopted within no less than 3 months and need the approval of a majority of the members of each chamber in join sitting session.
3.    The amendments takes effect after approval by referendum held within 30 days of the date of passing the draft of amendment. The draft of amendment submitted to referendum is not promulgated if it does not receive the majority of valid votes.
4.    No referendum may be held if the draft of amendment has been approved by each chamber with a majority of three fourth of its members.
Article 216
The Constitution of the Republic may amend only once five years after publication of previous amendment.
Article 217
Amendments to the Constitution are inserted in their proper place with the necessary substitutions, deletions, and additions.
Article 218
No act may be undertaken to amends the Constitution while war, state of emergency, and martial law is in force.
Article 219
1.    No amendment procedure is commenced or continued where the integrity of national territory is placed in jeopardy.
2.    The republican form of government is not the object of any amendment.